Belgium > Constitution
ToC 

    { Adopted in: 1970 }
    { Revised in: March 2021 }
    { Last Amendment: 30 March 2021 }
    { ICL Document Status: 6 February 2022}

    { Editor's Note:
    The ICL edition is based on the translation provided by the parliament.}

 

Title I  Federation, Components, TerritoryNo_Preamble

 
Article 1  [Federal State]
Belgium is a Federal State composed of Communities and Regions.111
 
Article 2  [Communities]
Belgium comprises three Communities: the French Community, the Flemish Community, and the German-speaking Community.
 
Article 3  [Regions]
Belgium comprises three Regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region, and the Brussels Region.
 
Article 4  [Linguistic Regions]
(1) Belgium comprises four linguistic regions: the Dutch-speaking Region, the French-speaking Region, the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital, and the German-speaking Region.
(2) Each municipality of the Kingdom forms part of one of these linguistic regions.
(3) The boundaries of the four linguistic regions can only be changed or modified by a law adopted by majority vote in each linguistic group in each House, on the condition that the majority of the members of each group are gathered together and from the moment that the total of affirmative votes given by the two linguistic groups is equal to at least two thirds of the votes expressed.
 
Article 5  [Provinces]
(1) The Flemish Region comprises the following provinces: Antwerp, Flemish Brabant, West Flanders, East Flanders, and Limburg. The Walloon Region comprises the following provinces: Walloon Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Luxemburg and Namur. 
(2) A law can exclude certain territories, of which it establishes the boundaries, from division into provinces, bring them directly under the federal executive power and subject them to a specific statute. This law must be passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 6  [Provincial Subdivisions]
Provincial subdivisions can only be established by law.
 
Article 7  [Delimitation]
The boundaries of the State, the provinces, and the communes can only be changed or corrected by virtue of a law.
 

Title Ibis  General Political Objectives of Federal Belgium, the Communities and the Regions

 
Article 7bis  [Objectives of sustainable development]
In the exercise of their respective competences, the Federal State, the Communities and the Regions pursue the objectives of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental aspects, taking into account the solidarity between the generations.
 

Title II  Belgians and Their Rights

 
Article 8  [Citizenship]
(1) The status as a Belgian citizen is acquired, kept and lost according to rules established by civil law.
(2) The Constitution and the other laws concerning political rights, establish, apart from this status, the necessary conditions for the exercising of these rights.
(3) In a departure from the second paragraph, the law can, in accordance with Belgium's international and supranational obligations, establish a right to vote for citizens of the European Union who are not Belgian citizens.
(4) The right to vote referred to in the preceding paragraph can be extended by a law to Belgian residents who are not citizens of a Member State of the European Union, under the conditions and in accordance with the terms specified in such a law.
Transitional provision
The law referred to in the fourth paragraph cannot be passed before 1 January 2001.
 
Article 9  [Naturalization]
Naturalization is granted by the federal legislative power.
 
Article 10  [Equality]
(1) There are no class distinctions in the State.
(2) Belgians are equal63 before the law; they alone are eligible for civil and military service, but for the exceptions that could be made by law for special cases.
(3) Equality between woman and men is guaranteed.
 
Article 11  [Non-Discrimination, Minorities]
Enjoyment of the rights and freedoms recognized for Belgians must be provided without discrimination. To this end, laws and federate laws guarantee among others the rights and freedoms of ideological and philosophical minorities.
 
Article 11bis [Equality between women and men]
(1) The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 guarantees that women and men may equally exercise their rights and freedoms, and in particular promotes their equal access to elective and public mandates.
(2) The Council of Ministers and the Governments of the Communities and the Regions include both women and men.
(3) The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 provides for women and men to sit on the permanent deputations of the provincial councils, the colleges of the burgomasters and aldermen, the councils and permanent committees of the public centers for social welfare and on the executives of any other inter-provincial, supra-municipal, inter-municipal or intra-municipal territorial body.
(4) The preceding paragraph does not apply when the law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 provides for the direct election of the members of the permanent deputations of the provincial councils, of aldermen, of the members of the councils and permanent committees of the social welfare centers or of the members of the executives of any other inter-provincial, supra-municipal, inter-municipal or intra-municipal territorial body.
 
Article 12  [Personal Liberty]
(1) Individual freedom is guaranteed.
(2) No one can be prosecuted except in the cases provided for by law, and in the form prescribed by law.
(3) Except in the case of a flagrant offence, no one can be arrested except on the strength of a reasoned judge's order, which must be served at the latest within forty-eight hours from the deprivation of liberty and which may only result in provisional detention.
 
Article 13  [Lawful Judge]
No one can be separated, against his will, from the judge that the law has assigned to him.
 
Article 14  [Legal Punishment]
No punishment can be introduced or administered except by virtue of the law.
 
Article 14bis [Capital punishment]
Capital punishment is abolished.
 
Article 15  [Home]
One's home is inviolable; no house search may take place except in the cases provided for by the law and in the form prescribed by the law.
 
Article 16  [Property]
No one can be deprived of his property622 except in the case of expropriation for a public purpose, in the cases and manner established by law, and in return for a fair compensation paid beforehand.
 
Article 17  [No Confiscation]
Assets may not be confiscated as a means of punishment.
 
Article 18  [Civil Death Punishment]
Civil death is abolished; it cannot be re-introduced.
 
Article 19  [Freedom of Expression]
Freedom of worship, public practice of the latter, as well as freedom to demonstrate one's opinions6242 on all matters, are guaranteed, but offences committed when this freedom is used may be punished.
 
Article 20  [No Forced Religion]
No one can be obliged to contribute in any way whatsoever to the acts and ceremonies of a religion, nor to observe the days of rest.
 
Article 21  [Church Competencies, Civil Wedding]
(1) The State does not have the right to intervene either in the appointment or in the installation of ministers of any religion whatsoever or to forbid these ministers from corresponding with their superiors, from publishing the acts of these superiors, but, in this latter case, normal responsibilities as regards the press and publishing apply.
(2) A civil wedding should always precede the blessing of the marriage, apart from the exceptions to be established by the law if needed.
 
Article 22  [Privacy]
(1) Everyone has the right to the respect of his private and family life, except in the cases and conditions determined by law.
(2) The laws, decrees, and rulers referred to in Article 134 guarantee the protection of this right.
 
Article 22bis [Rights of the child]
(1) Each child is entitled to have his or her moral, physical, mental and sexual integrity respected.
(2) Each child has the right to express his or her views in all matters affecting him or her, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with his or her age and maturity.
(3) Each child has the right to benefit from measures and facilities which promote his or her development.
(4) In all decisions concerning children, the interest of the child is a primary consideration.
(5) The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 ensures these rights of the child.
 
Article 22ter [Person with a disability]
(1) Every person with a disability has the right to full inclusion in society, including the right to reasonable accommodation.
(2) The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 guarantees the protection of this right.
 
Article 23  [Dignity]
(1) Everyone has the right to lead a life in keeping with human dignity.
(2) To this end, the laws, federate laws and rules referred to in Article 134 guarantee economic, social and cultural rights, taking into account corresponding obligations, and determine the conditions for exercising them.
(3)These rights include among others:
1) the right to employment and to the free choice of a professional activity in the framework of a general employment policy, aimed among others at ensuring a level of employment that is as stable and high as possible, the right to fair terms of employment and to fair remuneration, as well as the right to information, consultation and collective negotiation;
2) the right to social security, to health care and to social, medical, and legal aid;
3) the right to have decent accommodation;
4) the right to enjoy the protection of a healthy environment:
5) the right to enjoy cultural and social fulfillment.
 
Article 24  [Education]
(1.1) Education is free; any preventative measure is forbidden; the repression of offenses is only governed law or decree.
(1.2) The Community offers free choice to parents.
(1.3) The Community organizes neutral education.  Neutrality implies notably the respect of the philosophical, ideological, or religious conceptions of parents and pupils.
(1.4) The schools run by the public authorities offer, until the end of mandatory schooling, the choice between the teaching of one of the recognized religions and non-denominational moral teaching.
(2) If a Community, in its capacity as an organizing authority, wishes to delegate competency to one or several autonomous bodies, it can only do so by decree adopted by a two-third majority vote.
(3.1) Everyone has the right to education with the respect of fundamental rights and freedoms.  Access to education is free until the end of mandatory schooling.
(3.2) All pupils of school age have the right to moral or religious education at the Community's expense.
(4) All pupils or students, parents, teaching staff, or institutions are equal before the law or decree.  The law and decree take into account objective differences, notably the characteristics of each organizing authority, that justify appropriate treatment.
(5) The organization, the recognition and the subsidizing of education by the Community are regulated by law or decree.
 
Article 25  [Press]
(1) The press is free; censorship can never be introduced; security from authors, publishers, or printers cannot be demanded.
(2) When the author is known and resident in Belgium, neither the publisher, nor the printer, nor the distributor can be prosecuted.
 
Article 26  [Assembly]
(1) Belgians have the right to gather peaceably and without arms, in conformity with the laws that regulate the exercise of this right, without submitting it to prior authorization.
(2) This provision does not apply to open air meetings, which are entirely subject to police regulations.
 
Article 27  [Association]
Belgians have the right to enter into association or partnership; this right cannot be liable to any preventative measures.
 
Article 28  [Petition]
(1) Everyone has the right to address petitions signed by one or more persons to the public authorities.
(2) Constituted bodies are alone able to address petitions in a collective name.
 
Article 29  [Secrecy of Letters]
(1) The confidentiality of letters is inviolable.
(2) The law determines which nominated representatives can violate the confidentiality of letters entrusted to the postal service.
 
Article 30  [Choice of Language]
The use of languages current in Belgium is optional; only the law can rule on this matter, and only for acts of the public authorities and for legal matters.
 
Article 31  [Liability of Civil Servants]
No prior authorization is necessary to take legal action against civil servants because of their public office, except with regard to what has been ruled on concerning ministers and members of the Community and Regional governments.
 
Article 32  [Information]
Everyone has the right to consult any administrative document and to have a copy made, except in the cases and conditions stipulated by the laws, decrees, or rulings referred to in Article 134.
 

Title III  Powers

 
Article 33  [Sovereignty, Rule of Law]
(1) All power emanates from the Nation.
(2) The power is exerted in the manner established by the Constitution.
 
Article 34  [Transfer of Sovereignty]
The exercising of determined power can be attributed by a treaty or by a law to international public institutions.
 
Article 35  [Authorities]
(1) The federal authority only has power in the matters that are formally attributed to it by the Constitution and the laws carried in pursuance of the Constitution itself.
(2) The Communities and the Regions, each in its own field of concern, have power for the other matters, under the conditions and in the terms stipulated by law.  This law must be adopted by majority vote as provided for in Article 4, last paragraph.
Transitional provision
The law referred to in the second paragraph determines the date on which this article comes into force. This date cannot precede the date of the entry into force of the new article to be inserted in Title III of the Constitution, which determines the competences exclusive to the federal authority.
 
Article 36  [Legislative Power]
The federal legislative power is exerted collectively by the King, the House of Representatives, and the Senate.
 
Article 37  [Executive Power]
The federal executive power, as stipulated by the Constitution, belongs to the King.
 
Article 38  [Local Autonomy]
Each Community has assignments which are recognized by the Constitution or by the laws carried in pursuance of it.
 
Article 39  [Regional Autonomy]
The law attributes to the Regional Bodies528 that it creates and that are made up of elected representatives, the power to manage the matters that it determines, with the exception of those referred to in Articles 30 and 127 to 129, within the jurisdiction and according to the manner established by the law.  The latter must be adopted by majority vote as provided for in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 39bis [Referendum in the Region]
Except for matters relating to finances or budget or matters that are regulated by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast, matters attributed exclusively to regional bodies can be the subject of a referendum in the Region concerned.
The rule referred to in Article 134 determines the procedures and arrangements for the referendum, and is adopted by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast, under the condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present. A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph lays down additional majority requirements with respect to the Brussels-Capital Region.
 
Article 39ter [Elections]
The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 that regulates the elections for the House of Representatives or a Community or Regional Parliament, and that is promulgated less than one year before the date on which the legislative term is to come to an end, comes into force no sooner than one year after it has been promulgated.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when the first elections for the European Parliament take place after it has been published in the Belgian Official Gazette.
 
Article 40  [Adjudicating Power]
(1) Judiciary power is exerted by the courts and tribunals.
(2) Rulings and court decisions are carried out in the name of the King.
 
Article 41  [Decentralization, Adjournment]
(1) Interests which are exclusively of a municipal or provincial nature are ruled on by municipal or provincial councils, according to the principles laid down by the Constitution. However, the rule referred to in Article 134 can abolish the provincial institutions in implementation of a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph. In such a case, the rule referred to in Article 134 can replace them by supra-municipal collectivities, the councils of which rule the exclusively supra-municipal interests in accord- ance with the principles established by the Constitution. The rule referred to in Article 134 must be adopted by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast, under the condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament con- cerned is present.
(2) The rule referred to in Article 134 defines the competences, working rules and mode of election of intra-municipal territorial bodies that are authorised to regulate matters of municipal interest.
(3) These intra-municipal territorial bodies are created in municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants following the initiative of the municipal council. Their members are directly elected. In implementation of a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, the federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 regulates the other conditions and the way in which such intra-municipal territorial bodies may be created.
(4) This federate law and the rule referred to in Article 134 can only be adopted by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast, under the condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present.
(5) Matters of municipal, supra-municipal or provincial interest can be the subject of a referendum in the municipality, supra-municipal collectivity or province concerned. The rule referred to in Article 134 regulates the procedures and arrangements for the referendum.
 

Chapter I  The Federal Houses

 
Article 42  [Representation]
The members of the two Houses532 represent the Nation, and not only those who elected them.
 
Article 43  [Linguistic Groups]
(1) For cases determined by the Constitution, the elected members of the House of Representatives are divided into a Dutch linguistic group and a French linguistic group, in the manner determined by the law.
(2) For cases determined by the Constitution, senators, except the sena- tor appointed by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community, are di- vided into a Dutch linguistic group and a French linguistic group.
(3) The senators referred to in Article 67, § 1, 1 and 6 make up the Dutch linguistic group of the Senate. The senators referred to in Article 67, § 1, 2 to 4 and 7 make up the French linguistic group of the Senate.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014.
The following provisions apply until that day:
"(1) For cases determined by the Constitution, the elected members of each House are divided into a Dutch linguistic group and a French linguistic group, in the manner determined by the law.
(2) The senators referred to in Article 67, § 1, 1, 3 and 6 make up the Dutch linguistic group of the Senate. The senators referred to in Article 67, § 1, 2, 4 and 7 make up the French linguistic group of the Senate.".
 
Article 44  [Sessions]
(1) The Houses meet by right each year on the second Tuesday of October, unless they have been called together prior to this by the King.
(2) The Houses must meet each year for at least forty days.
(3) The King pronounces the closing of the session.
(4) The King has the right to convoke the Houses to an extraordinary meeting.
Transitional provision
The second sentence of the second paragraph comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014.
 
Article 45  [Adjournment]
The King can adjourn the Houses. However, the adjournment cannot exceed the period of one month, nor be renewed in the same session without the consent of the Houses.
 
Article 46  [Reasons for Dissolution]
(1) The King has only the right to dissolve the House of Representatives if the latter, with the absolute majority of its members:
1) either rejects a motion of confidence in the federal Government and does not propose to the King, within three days from the day of the rejection of the motion, the nomination of a successor to the Prime Minister;
2) or adopts a motion of disapproval with regard to the federal Government and does not simultaneously propose to the King the nomination of a successor to the Prime Minister.
(2) The motions of confidence and disapproval can only be voted on after a delay of forty-eight hours after the introduction of the motion.
(3) Moreover, the King may, in the event of the resignation of the Federal Government, dissolve the House of Representatives after having received its agreement expressed by the absolute majority of its members.
(4) The act of dissolution convenes the electorate within forty days and the House of Representatives within two months.
(5) In case both Houses are dissolved in accordance with Article 195, the Houses are convened within three months.
(6) In case of early dissolution, the new federal parliamentary term may not extend beyond the day when the first election of the European Parliament following this dissolution is held.
Transitional provision
(1) After the 2014 election of the European Parliament, a law, passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, fixes the date when the sixth paragraph comes into force. This date is that on which Article 65, third paragraph and Article 118, § 2, fourth sub-paragraph come into force.
(2) The fourth and fifth paragraphs come into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this date, the following provisions are applicable in lieu of the fourth and fifth paragraphs:
"The dissolution of the House of Representatives entails the dissolution of the Senate.
The act of dissolution convenes the electorate within forty days and the Houses within two months.
The dissolution of the House of Representatives leading to parliamentary elections at federal level that take place the same day as the 2014 election of the Community and Regional Parliaments entails the dissolution of the Sen- ate. The electorate for the House of Representatives is convened within forty days. The Houses are convened within three months.".
 
Article 47  [Publicity]
(1) The sessions of the Houses are public.
(2) Nevertheless, each House can meet in a secret committee, at the request of its president or of ten members.
(3) It can decide afterwards, by absolute majority, if a session on the same subject has to be held again in public.
 
Article 48  [Self-Organization]
Each House controls the powers of its members and judges any dispute that can be raised on this matter.
 
Article 49  [Horizontal Incompatibility]
It is not possible to be a member of both Houses at the same time.
 
Article 50  [Ministerial Incompatibility]
Any member of one of the two Houses, appointed by the King as a minister and who accepts this nomination, ceases to sit in the House and takes up his mandate again when the King has put an end to his functions as a minister.  The law provides for the terms of his replacement in the House concerned.
 
Article 51  [Governmental Incompatibility]
Any member of either of the two Houses, appointed by the federal Government to any salaried function other than that of minister and who accepts the appointment, immediately ceases to sit in the House and only takes his functions up again by virtue of a new election.
 
Article 52  [President]
At each session, each of the Houses appoints its president, its vice-presidents, and forms its committee.
 
Article 53  [Majority, Quorum]
(1) Any resolution is made by absolute majority of votes, except with regard to what is established by the regulations of the Houses with regard to elections and presentations.
(2) If the votes are divided, the proposal submitted for discussion is rejected.
(3) Neither of the two Houses can take a resolution until the majority of its members are in session.
 
Article 54  [Group Veto, Alarm-Bell Procedure]
(1) With the exception of budgets and laws requiring a special majority, a justified motion, signed by at least three-quarters of the members of one of the linguistic groups and introduced following the introduction of the report and prior to the finalvote in a public session, can declare that the provisions of a draft bill or of a motion are of a nature to gravely damage relations between the Communities.
(2) In this case, the parliamentary procedure is suspended and the motion referred to the Council of Ministers which, within thirty days, gives its justified recommendations on the motion and invites the implicated House to express its opinion on these recommendations or on the draft bill or motion that has been revised if need be.
(3) This procedure can only be applied once by the members of a linguistic group with regard to the same bill or motion.
 
Article 55  [Voting, Ballot]
Votes are given by rising or remaining seated or by call-over; most of the laws are voted by call-over. The election and presentation of candidates are carried out by secret ballot.
 
Article 56  [Enquiries]
(1) The House of Representatives has the right to hold an enquiry.
(2) At the request of fifteen of its members, the House of Representatives, a Community or Regional Parliament or the King, the Senate can decide by ab- solute majority of the votes cast, with at least a third of the votes cast in each linguistic group, that an information report will be drafted concerning an is- sue that also has repercussions on the competences of the Communities or Regions. The report is approved by absolute majority of the votes cast, with at least a third of the votes cast in each linguistic group.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a 21 view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provision applies:
"Each House has the right to hold an enquiry.".
 
Article 57  [Petitions]
(1) It is forbidden to present petitions to the Houses in person.
(2) The House of Representatives has the right to send to ministers petitions that are addressed to it. The ministers are obliged to give explanations on the content of these petitions whenever the House so requires.
Transitional provision
The second paragraph comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provision applies in lieu of the second paragraph:
"Each House has the right to send to ministers petitions that are ad- dressed to it. The ministers are obliged to explain the content of these petitions whenever the House so requires.".
 
Article 58  [Indemnity]
No member of either of the two Houses can be prosecuted or pursued with regard to opinions and votes given by him in the exercise of his duties.
 
Article 59  [Immunity]
(1) Except in the case of a flagrant offence, no member of either House may, during a session and in criminal matters, be directly referred or summoned before a court or be arrested, except with the authorization of the House of which he is a member.
(2) Except in the case of a flagrant offence, coercive measures requiring the intervention of a judge cannot, during a session and in criminal matters, be instituted against a member of either House, except by the first President of the appeal court at the request of the competent judge. This decision is to be communicated to the President of the House concerned.
(3) All searches or seizures executed by virtue of the preceding paragraph can be performed only in the presence of the President of the House concerned or a member appointed by him.
(4) During the session, only the officers of the public prosecutor's office and competent officers may institute criminal proceedings against a member of either House.
(5) The member concerned of either House may at any stage of the judicial enquiry request during a session and in criminal matters that the House of which he is a member suspend proceedings. To grant this request, the House concerned must decide by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast.
(6) Detention of a member of either House or his prosecution before a court is suspended during the session if the House of which he is a member so requests.
 
Article 60  [Regulations]
Each House determines, by its regulations, the way in which it exercises its duties.
 

Section I  The House of Representatives

 
Article 61  [Direct Elections, Electoral Rights]
(1) The members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by citizens who have completed the age of eighteen6271 and who do not fall within the categories of exclusion stipulated by law.
(2) Each elector has the right to only one vote.
 
Article 62  [Constituencies]
(1) The establishing of the constituencies or electoral colleges is  governed by law.
(2) Elections are carried out by the system of proportional representation that the law determines.
(3) The ballot is obligatory683 and secret.  It takes place at the commune, except in the cases determined by law.
 
Article 63  [Seats]
(1) The House of Representatives is composed of one hundred and fifty members.
(2.1) The number of seats in each electoral district corresponds to the result of dividing the number of inhabitants of the electoral district by the federal divisor, which is obtained by dividing the number of the population of the Kingdom by one hundred and fifty.
(2.2) The remaining seats are assigned to the electoral districts with the greatest surplus of population not yet represented.
(3.1) The distribution of the members of the House of Representatives among the electoral districts is determined by the King in proportion to the population.
(3.2) The number of inhabitants in each electoral district is established every ten years by a census or by any other means defined by the law. The King publishes the results within six months.
(3.3) Within three months of this publication, the King determines the number of seats to be assigned to each electoral district.
(3.4) The new distribution is applied as of the following general election.
(4.1) The law determines the electoral districts; it also determines the conditions required to be an elector as well as the way in which elections are conducted.
(4.2) However, the law determines special rules with a view to protecting the legitimate interests of French and Dutch-speaking people in the former province of Brabant.
(4.3) The provisions which establish these special rules may only be amended by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 64  [Eligibility]
(1) To be eligible, one must:
1) be Belgian;
2) enjoy civil and political rights;
3) have completed the age of twenty-one;
4) be legally resident in Belgium.
(2) No other condition of eligibility can be required.
Transitional provision
The first paragraph, 3 comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, and without prejudice to Article 64, 1, 2 and 4, one must have reached the age of twenty-one.
 
Article 65  [Term]
(1) The members of the House of Representatives are elected for five years.
(2) The House is re-elected as a whole every five years.
(3) Elections for the House take place on the same day as elections for the European Parliament.
Transitional provision
After elections for the European Parliament have been held in 2014, a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph sets the date on which the third paragraph comes into force. This date is that on which Article 46, sixth paragraph and Article 118, § 2, fourth sub-paragraph come into force.
Parliamentary elections at federal level will in any case take place on the same day as the first elections for the European Parliament following the publication of this revision in the Belgian Official Gazette.
 
Article 66  [Remuneration]
(1) Each member of the House of Representatives benefits from an annual indemnity of twelve thousand francs.
(2) He also has the right to free travel on all the means of communication operated or contracted out by the State.
(3) The law determines the means of transport that the representatives can use free of charge apart from those mentioned above.
(4) An annual indemnity to be deducted from the allocation destined to cover the expenditure of the House of Representatives can be attributed to the President of this assembly.
(5) The House determines the amount of the deductions that can be applied to the indemnity by way of a contribution to the pension funds that it judges necessary to establish.
 

Section II  The Senate

 
Article 67  [Seats]
(1) Without prejudice to Article 72, the Senate is made up of seventy-one senators, of whom:
1) twenty-five senators elected in conformity with Article 61, by the Dutch electoral college;
2) fifteen senators elected in conformity with Article 61, by the French electoral college;
3) ten senators appointed by and within the Council of the Flemish Community, named the Flemish Council;
4) ten senators appointed by and within the Council of the French Community;
5) one senator appointed by and within the Council of the German-speaking Community;
6) six senators appointed by the senators referred to in 1) and 3);
7) four senators appointed by the senators referred to in 2) and 4).
(2.1) At least one of the senators referred to in (1) 1) is to be legally resident in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital on the day of his election.
(2.2) Three of the senators referred to in (1) 2) are member of the French linguistic group of the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region. As a departure from (1) 2), one of these three senators must not be a member of the Parliament of the French Community.
(3) The Senate is composed of no more than two-thirds of senators of the same gender.
(4) When a list mentioned in Article 68 (2) is not represented by senators respectively referred to in (1) 1) or in (1), 2), 3) or 4), the senators referred to in (1) 6) or in (1) 7) may be appointed by the Members of the House of Representatives who have been elected on the aforesaid list.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"(1) Without prejudice to Article 72, the Senate is composed of seventy- one senators, of whom:
1) twenty-five senators elected in accordance with Article 61 by the Dutch electoral college;
2) fifteen senators elected in accordance with Article 61 by the French electoral college;
3) ten senators appointed from among its members by the Parliament of the Flemish Community, called the Flemish Parliament;
4) ten senators appointed from among its members by the Parliament of the French Community;
5) one senator appointed from among its members by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community;
6) six senators appointed by the senators referred to in 1) and 3);
7) four senators appointed by the senators referred to in 2) and 4).
When their Parliament is re-elected as a whole and this re-election does not coincide with the renewal of the Senate, the senators referred to in the first paragraph, 3) to 5) who no longer have a seat in their Parliament retain the mandate of senator until the opening of the first session following the re-election of their Parliament.
(2.1) At least one of the senators referred to in (1) 1), 3) and 6) is to be legally resident in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital on the day of his election.
(2.2) At least six of the senators referred to in (1) 2), 4) and 7) are to be legally resident in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital on the day of their elec- tion. If at least four of the senators referred to in (1) 2) are not legally resident in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital on the day of their election, at least two of the senators referred to in (1) 4) must be legally resident in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital on the day of their election.".
 
Article 68  [Group Balance]
(1.1) The Senate seats referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) are distributed among the lists according to the system of proportional representation determined by the law, in the way laid down by the law, on the basis of the addition of the vote counts of the lists obtained in the different electoral districts at the election for the Flemish Parliament.
(1.2) The lists of which the vote counts are added up in pursuance of the first subparagraph only qualify for being allocated Senate seats referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) provided that they have obtained at least one seat in the Flemish Parliament.
(1.3) The Senate seats referred to in Article 67 (1) 2) to 4) are distributed among the lists according to the system of proportional representation determined by the law, in the way laid down by the law, on the basis of the addition of the vote counts of the lists obtained in the different electoral districts at the election for the Parliament of the Walloon Region and the vote counts of the lists for the French linguistic group obtained at the election for the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region.
(1.4) The lists of which the vote counts are added up in pursuance of the third subparagraph only qualify for being allocated Senate seats referred to in Article 67 (1) 2) to 4) provided that they have obtained at least one seat respectively in the Parliament of the French Community, in the Walloon Parliament and in the French linguistic group of the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region.
(1.5) The law determines the rules for the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) to 4), with the exception of the detailed rules which, in pursuance of a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, are laid down by the Community Parliaments, each for itself, by federate law. This federate law must be passed by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, on condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present.
(1.6) The senator referred to in Article 67 (1) 5) is appointed by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community by absolute majority of the votes cast.
(2.1) The Senate seats referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) to 7) are distributed among the lists according to the system of proportional representation determined by the law, in the way laid down by the law, on the basis of the addition of the vote counts of the lists obtained at the election for the House of Representatives. The aforesaid system of proportional representation is the system which is described in Article 63 (2) of the Constitution. A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph determines the electoral districts of which the votes are taken into consideration for distributing the seats of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) and 7) who belong respectively to the Dutch and the French linguistic group.
(2.2) A list may only be taken into consideration for distributing the seats of a single linguistic group.
(2.3) The law determines the rules for the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) to 7).
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014, with the exception of (2), first sub-paragraph, last sentence. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"(1) The total number of senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1), 2), 3), 4), 6) and 7) is divided, according to the system of proportional representation that the law determines, among each linguistic group on the basis of the vote count of the lists obtained at the election of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2).
For the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 3) and 4), only those lists are taken into consideration on which at least one senator referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2) is elected and provided that a sufficient number of members elected on this list sit, according to the case, in the Parliament of the Flemish Community or the Parliament of the French Community.
For the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) and 7), only those lists are taken into consideration on which at least on senator referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2) is elected.
(2) For the election of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2), voting is obligatory and secret. Voting takes place in the municipality, except in the cases that the law determines. (3)For the election of senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2), the law determines the electoral districts and the composition of the electoral colleges; it also determines the conditions which must be met in order to be an elector, as well as the way in which elections are conducted.
The law determines the rules for the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1), 3) to 5), with the exception of the detailed rules which, in pursuance of a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last para- graph, are laid down by the Community Parliaments, each for itself, by federate law. This federate law must be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, on condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present.
The senator referred to in Article 67 (1) 5) is appointed by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community by absolute majority of the votes cast.
The law determines the rules for the appointment of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1), 6) and 7).".
 
Article 69  [Eligibility]
In order to be elected or appointed as a senator one must:
1) be Belgian;
2) enjoy civil and political rights;
3) have completed the age of twenty-one;
4) be legally resident in Belgium.
 
Article 70  [Term]
(1) The mandate of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) to 5) runs from the day when they take the oath in the Senate and ends, after the complete renewal of the Parliament that has appointed them, on the day when the first session of the latter is opened.
(2) The mandate of the senators referred to in Article 67 (1)v6) and 7) runs from the day when they take the oath in the Senate and ends on the day when the first session of the House of Representatives following its complete renewal is opened.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"The senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) and 2) are elected for four years. The senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) and 7) are appointed for four years. The Senate is in any case renewed as a whole when the elections for the Community and Regional Parliaments are held in 2014.".
 
Article 71  [Compensation]
(1) Senators do not receive a salary.
(2) They do, however, have the right to be compensated for expenses.
The compensation granted to the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 1) to 4) is fixed by the Community or Regional Parliament that appoints them. It is charged to this Parliament.
3) The compensation granted to the senator referred to in Article 67 (1) 5) is the same as the compensation granted to the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 3) and is charged to the Parliament of the German-speaking Community.
(4) The compensation granted to the senators referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) and 7) is charged to the Senate's allowance.
(5) Within the national borders, the members of the Senate have the right to free travel on all means of transport operated or conceded by the public authorities.
Transitional provision
The insertion of the third to fifth paragraphs of this article becomes effective on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014.
Until this day, senators are entitled to a compensation of four thousand francs a year.
 
Article 72  [King's Descendants]
(repealed)
 
Article 73  [Sessions]
(repealed)
 

Chapter II  Federal Legislation

 
Article 74  [Competencies]
As a departure from Article 36, federal legislative power is jointly exercised by the King and the House of Representatives for other matters than those described in Articles 77 and 78.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"As a departure from Article 36, federal legislative power is jointly exercised by the King and by the House of Representatives for:
1) the granting of naturalization;
2) laws relating to the civil and criminal liability of the King's ministers;
3) State budgets and accounts, without prejudice to Article 174, first paragraph, second sentence;
4) the setting of army quotas.".
 
Article 75  [Initiative]
(1) Each branch of the federal legislative power has the right to propose legislation. However, the Senate can only exercise this right with respect to the matters described in Article 77.
(2) With respect to the matters described in Article 78, draft bills submitted to the Houses on the King's initiative are tabled with the House of Representatives and then sent to the Senate.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"Each branch of the federal legislative power has the right to propose legislation.
Except for those matters described in Article 77, draft bills submitted to the Houses following the King's initiative are tabled with the House of Representatives and are then sent to the Senate.
Draft bills relating to the approval of treaties submitted to the Houses following the King's initiative are tabled with the Senate and then sent to the House of Representatives.".
 
Article 76  [Drafts]
(1) A draft bill may be adopted by a House only after having been voted on article by article.
(2) The Houses have the right to amend and to split the articles and amendments proposed.
(3) The Rules of Procedure of the House of Representatives provide for a second reading procedure.
Transitional provision
The third paragraph comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014.
 
Article 77  [Competencies of Both Houses]
(1) The House of Representatives and the Senate are equally competent with respect to:
1) declaring that there are reasons to revise such constitutional provision as they determine, and with respect to revising and coordinating the Constitution;
2) matters that must be settled by both legislative Houses by virtue of the Constitution;
3) the laws to be passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
4) the laws relating to the institutions and financing of the German- speaking Community;
5) the laws relating to the financing of political parties and the control of electoral expenditure;
6) the laws relating to the organization of the Senate and the senator's status.
(2) A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph may designate other matters for which the House of Representatives and the Sen- ate are equally competent.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"The House of Representatives and the Senate are equally competent with respect to:
1) declaring that there are reasons to revise such constitutional provision as they determine, and with respect to such constitutional revision;
2) matters that must be settled by both legislative Houses by virtue of the Constitution;
3) the laws described in Articles 5, 39, 43, 50, 68, 71, 77, 82, 115, 117, 118, 121, 123, 127 to 131, 135 to 137, 140 to 143, 145, 146, 163, 165, 166, 167, (1), third sub-paragraph, (4) and  (5), 169, 170, (2), second sub- paragraph, (3), second and third sub-paragraphs, (4), second sub- paragraph, and 175 to 177, as well as the laws enacted in order to execute the above-mentioned laws and articles;
4) the laws to be adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, as well as the laws enacted in order to execute such laws;
5) the laws referred to in Article 34;
6) the laws approving treaties;
7) the laws adopted in accordance with Article 169, to guarantee that international or supranational commitments are observed;
8) the laws relating to the Council of State;
9) the organization of the courts;
10) the laws approving cooperation agreements between the State, the Communities and the Regions.
A law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph may designate other laws for which the House of Representatives and the Senate are equally competent.".
 
Article 78  [Draft Bills of the House of Representatives]
(1) With the reservation of what is provided for in Article 77, draft bills adopted by the House of Representatives with respect to the following matters are sent to the Senate:
1) the laws enacted in order to execute laws to be passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
2) the laws described in Articles 5, 39, 115, 117, 118, 121, 123, 127 to 129, 131, 135 to 137, 141 to 143, 163, 165, 166, 167, § 1, third sub-para- graph, 169, 170, (2), second sub-paragraph, (3), second and third sub- paragraphs, and (4), second sub-paragraph, 175 and 177, as well as the laws enacted in order to execute the above-mentioned laws, with the exception of the legislation on the organization of automated voting;
3) the laws passed in accordance with Article 169, to guarantee that international and supranational commitments are observed;
4) the laws relating to the Council of State and the federal administrative courts.
A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph may designate other matters that the Senate can examine according to the procedure as described in this article.
(2.1)The Senate examines the draft bill at the request of the majority of its members, including at least a third of the members of each linguistic group. This request is made within fifteen days from the receipt of the bill.
(2.2) The Senate may, within no more than thirty days:
- decide that there is no ground to amend the bill;
- adopt the bill after having amended it.
(2.3) If the Senate does not pronounce on the bill within the time allotted, or if it has informed the House of Representatives of its decision not to amend, the bill is sent by the House of Representatives to the King.
(2.4) If the bill has been amended, the Senate sends it to the House of Representatives, which makes a final decision by either passing or amending it.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"In other matters than those described in Articles 74 and 77, draft bills adopted by the House of Representatives are sent to the Senate.
At the request of at least fifteen senators, the Senate examines the draft bills. This request is made within fifteen days of the draft bill being received. The Senate may, within no more than sixty days:
- decide not to amend the draft bill;
- adopt the bill after having amended it.
If the Senate does not pronounce on the bill within the time allotted, or if the Senate has informed the House of Representatives of its decision not to amend, the bill is sent by the House of Representatives to the King.
If the bill has been amended, the Senate sends it to the House of Representatives, which makes a final decision by either adopting or rejecting all or some of the amendments adopted by the Senate.".
 
Article 79  [New Amendment]
(repealed)
 
Article 80  [Urgent Bills]
(repealed)
 
Article 81  [Draft Bills of the Senate]
(repealed)
 
Article 82  [Consultation Commission]
(1) A Parliamentary consultation committee composed equally of members of the House of Representatives and of the Senate settles conflicts of competence that arise between the two Houses and may, by mutual agreement, ex- tend the examination deadline set in Article 78 at any time.
(2) If no majority exists in the two groups composing the committee, the latter makes its decision by a majority of two thirds of its members.
(3) A law determines the composition and functioning of the committee, as well as the way of calculating the time limits set in Article 78.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments.
Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"A Parliamentary consultation committee composed equally of members of the House of Representatives and of the Senate settles conflicts of competence that arise between the two Houses and may, by mutual agreement, ex- tend the examination deadlines set in Articles 78 to 81 at any time.
In no majority exists in the two groups composing the committee, the lat- ter makes its decision by a majority of two thirds of its members.
A law determines the composition and functioning of the committee, as well as the way of calculating the time limits set in Articles 78 to 81.".
 
Article 83  [Specification]
Each private member's bill and each Government bill mentions whether it concerns a matter described in Article 74, Article 77 or Article 78.
 
Article 84  [Interpretation of Laws]
Only the law can give an authoritative interpretation of laws.
 

Chapter III  King and Federal Government

 

Section I  The King

 
Article 85  [Dynasty]
(1) The King's51 constitutional powers are hereditary through the direct, natural, and legitimate descent from H.M. Leopold, Georges, Christian, Frederic of Saxony-Coburg, by order of primogeniture.
(2) The successor described in Paragraph (1) shall be deprived of his rights to the crown, if he marries without the King's consent or, in the absence thereof, without the consent of those exercising the King's powers in cases provided for by the Constitution.
(3) His lost right may nonetheless be re-established by the King, or, in the absence thereof, by those exercising the King's powers in cases provided for by the Constitution, in the event of agreement on the part of both Houses.
 
Article 86  [Succession]
(1) For lack of a descendant to H. M. Leopold, Georges, Chretien, Frederic of Saxony-Coburg, the King may name his successor, with the approval of the Houses, in such a manner as prescribed in Article 87.
(2) In the absence of a nomination undertaken in the above-mentioned manner, the throne shall be vacant.
 
Article 87  [Other Kingdom]
(1) The King may not simultaneously act as head of another state without the consent of both Houses.
(2) Neither of the two Houses may debate this matter unless two-thirds of their members are present, and the resolution may be adopted only with a two-thirds majority vote.
 
Article 88  [Responsibility]
The King's person is inviolable; his ministers are responsible.
 
Article 89  [Civil List]
The civil list for the duration of each reign is established by law.
 
Article 90  [King's Tasks]
(1) Upon the King's death, the Houses meet without convocation, ten days following the decease at latest. Should the Houses have been previously dissolved, and should the convocation in the dissolution act have been made for a time later than the tenth day following the decease, then the former Houses are to return to their functions until the establishment of those destined to replace them.
(2) From the moment of the King's death and until the taking of oath by his successor to the throne or by the Regent, the King's constitutional powers are exercised, in the name of the Belgian people, by the Council of Ministers, and under their responsibility.
 
Article 91  [King's Majority, Oath]
(1) The King attains his majority upon completion of his eighteenth year of age.
(2) The King may accede to the throne only after having taken the following oath before the united Houses:
"I swear to observe the Constitution and the laws of the Belgian people, to preserve our national independence and our territorial integrity".
 
Article 92  [Minority Guardianship]
Should, upon the King's death, his successor be under age, the two Houses meet as a single assembly, for the purpose of regency and guardianship.
 
Article 93  [Inability Guardianship]
Should the King find himself unable to reign, the ministers, having observed this inability, immediately summon the Houses.  Regency and guardianship are to be provided by the United Houses.
 
Article 94  [Conferring Regency]
(1) Regency may be conferred on only one person.
(2) The Regent may take office only after having taken the oath as specified in Article 91.
 
Article 95  [Vacancy of the Throne]
Should the throne be vacant, the Houses, debating as one assembly, temporarily ensure regency, until the convening of the fully renewed Houses.  This meeting must take place within two months.  The new Houses, debating as one assembly, provide permanent cover for the vacancy.
 

Section II  The Federal Government

 
Article 96  [Establishing Government]
(1) The King appoints and dismisses his ministers.
(2) The Federal Government525 offers its resignation to the King if the House of Representatives, by an absolute majority of its members, adopts a motion of disapproval, proposing to the King the nomination of a successor to the Prime Minister, or proposes to the King the nomination of a successor to the Prime Minister within three days of the rejection of a motion of confidence.  The King names the proposed successor as Prime Minister, who takes office the moment the new federal Government is sworn in.
 
Article 97  [Eligibility for Government]
Belgians alone may be ministers.
 
Article 98  [Royal Incompatibility]
No member of the royal family may be a minister.
 
Article 99  [Composition of Government]
(1) The Council of Ministers includes fifteen members at most.
(2) With the possible exception of the Prime Minister, the Council of Ministers includes as many Dutch-speaking members as French-speaking members.
 
Article 100  [Government in Parliament]
(1) Ministers have access to both Houses and must be heard whenever they so request.
(2) The House of Representatives may require the presence of ministers. The Senate may require their presence for the matters mentioned in Article 77 or 78. For other matters, it may request their presence.
Transitional provision
The second sentence of the second paragraph comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provision applies, without prejudice to the first paragraph and the first and last sentences of the second paragraph:
"The Senate may require their presence for discussion of a Government bill or private member's bill as mentioned in Article 77 or a Government bill as mentioned in Article 78 or for the exercise of its right of inquiry as mentioned in Article 56.".
 
Article 101  [Responsibility, Indemnity]
(1) Ministers are responsible before the House of Representatives.
(2) No minister may be prosecuted or pursued on account of opinions expressed in the line of his duties.
 
Article 102  [Exclusive Responsibility]
Under no circumstances may a written or verbal order of the King diminish the responsibilities of a minister.
 
Article 103  [Control]
(1) Ministers are tried exclusively by the appeal court for offences they have allegedly committed in the exercise of their duties. The same rule applies in the case of offences allegedly committed by ministers outside the exercise of their duties and for which they are tried during the exercise of their duties. As the case may be, Articles 59 and 120 are not applicable.
(2) The law determines the manner of proceeding against them, both when they are prosecuted and when they are tried.
(3) The law designates the appeal court having jurisdiction, which sits in banc, and specifies its composition. The judgments of the appeal court can be appealed to the united chambers of the Supreme Court, which does not pronounce on the merits of the case.
(4) Only the public prosecutor to the appeal court that has jurisdiction may institute and lead criminal proceedings against a minister.
(5) Authorization by the House of Representatives is required for any public prosecutor's request to refer the minister concerned to a particular court or to discharge him, for his direct summons before the appeal court and, except in a case of a flagrant offence, for his arrest.
(6) The law determines the procedure to be followed when Articles 103 and 125 are both applicable.
(7) A pardon may be granted to a minister convicted in accordance with the first paragraph only upon request by the House of Representatives.
(8) The law determines in which cases and in accordance with which rules injured parties may institute a civil action.
Transitional provision
The present article is not applicable to acts which have been the subject of a preliminary judicial investigation or to proceedings instituted prior to the entry into force of the law implementing the article.
In such a case, the following rule applies: the House of Representatives has the right to indict ministers and to bring them before the Supreme Court. Only the united chambers of this court have jurisdiction to try ministers in cases covered by the criminal laws and by application of the penalties prescribed by such laws. The Law of 17 December 1996 concerning the tempo- rary and partial implementation of Article 103 of the Constitution remains applicable in such cases.
 
Article 104  [Secretaries of State]
(1) The King appoints and dismisses the federal Secretaries of State.
(2) The latter are members of the federal Government.  They are not part of the Council of Ministers.  They are deputies to a minister.
(3) The King determines their attributions and the limits within which they may engage in countersigning.
(4) Constitutional provisions which apply to ministers apply equally to federal Secretaries of State, with the exception of Articles 90 (2), 93, and 99.
 

Section III  Responsibilities

 
Article 105  [Limited Powers]
The King has no powers other than those formally attributed to him by the Constitution and by specific laws established by virtue of the Constitution itself.
 
Article 106  [Countersignature]
No actions of the King may take effect without the countersignature of a minister, who, in doing so, takes responsibility upon himself.
 
Article 107  [Army]
(1) The King bestows ranks within the army.
(2) He appoints individuals to general administrative functions and to foreign affairs, but for those exceptions established by law.
(3) He appoints individuals to other functions only by virtue of specific provisions of a law.
 
Article 108  [Execution of Laws]
The King establishes regulations and decrees required for the execution of laws, without ever having the power to either suspend the laws themselves, or to dispense from their execution.
 
Article 109  [Promulgation]
The King sanctions and promulgates laws.
 
Article 110  [Right to Pardon]
The King has the right to annul or to reduce sentences pronounced by judges, except for that which is statuted relative to ministers and members of Community and Regional Governments.
 
Article 111  [Limitation of Pardon]
The King may not pardon a minister or the member of a Community or Regional Government condemned by the Supreme Court of Appeal, except at the express demand of the House of Representatives or of the Council concerned.
 
Article 112  [Money]
The King may mint money, in keeping with the law.
 
Article 113  [Titles]
The King may confer titles of nobility, while remaining unable to attach privileges to the latter.
 
Article 114  [Military Orders]
The King may give military orders within the limits prescribed by law.
 

Chapter IV  Communities, Regions

 

Section I  Bodies

 

Subsection I  Community and Regional Councils

 
Article 115  [Councils]
(1.1) There is a French Community Council and a Flemish Community Council, named Flemish Council, the composition and the functioning of which are established by law, adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
(1.2) There is a German-speaking Community Council, the composition and the functioning of which are determined by law.
(2) Without prejudice to Article 137, regional bodies as described in Article 39 comprise a Council for each Region.
 
Article 116  [Elections]
(1) The Councils are composed of elected representatives.
(2.1) Each Community Council is composed of members elected directly as members of the concerned Community Council or as members of a Regional Council.
(2.2) The application of Article 137 notwithstanding, each Regional Council is composed of members elected directly as members of the Regional Council concerned or as members of a Community Council.
 
Article 117  [Term]
(1) Members of the Community and Regional Parliaments are elected for a period of five years. The Community and Regional Parliaments are re-elected as a whole every five years.
(2) Elections for the Community and Regional Parliaments take place on the same day and coincide with elections for the European Parliament.
(3) In execution of a law as described in Article 118 (2), fourth sub-para- graph, a federate law or a rule referred to in Article 134, passed in accordance with Article 118, (2), fourth sub-paragraph, may derogate from the first and second paragraphs.
 
Article 118  [Election Law]
(1) Elections referred to in Article 116 (2), as well as the composition and functioning of Community and Regional Parliaments are regulated by the law. Except for the Parliament of the German-speaking Community, such a law is adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
(2.1) A law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph designates those matters relating to the election, composition and functioning of the Brussels-Capital Region Parliament, the Flemish Community Parliament, the French Community Parliament and the Walloon Region Parliament which these Parliaments regulate, each for itself, either by federate law or by rule as referred to in Article 134, according to the case. This federate law and this rule as referred to in Article 134 are adopted by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, provided that a majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present.
(2.2) The law as described in the first sub-paragraph determines additional majority requirements with respect to the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region.
(2.3) A law designates those matters relating to the election, composition and functioning of the Parliament of the German-speaking Community which this Parliament regulates by federate law. This federate law is adopted by a two- thirds majority of the votes cast, provided that a majority of the members of the Parliament is present.
(2.4) The law as described in the first or third sub-paragraph, according to the case, may entitle the Community and Regional Parliaments to determine, each for itself, by federate law or rule referred to in Article 134, according to the case, the duration of the term for which they are elected and the date of their election. This federate law and rule referred to in Article 134 are adopted by majorities as described in the first to third sub-paragraphs.
Transitional provision
After elections for the European Parliament have been held in 2014, a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph sets the date on which (2), fourth sub-paragraph, comes into force. This date is that on which Article 46, sixth paragraph and Article 65, third paragraph come into force.
 
Article 118bis [Free Travel]
Within the national borders, the members of the Regional and Community Parliaments, referred to in Articles 2 and 3, have the right to free travel on all means of transport operated or conceded by the public authorities.
 
Article 119   [Incompatibility]
A member of a Community or Regional Parliament cannot be at the same time a member of the House of Representatives. Moreover, neither can he be a senator as referred to in Article 67 (1) 6) and 7).
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, the following provisions apply:
"A member of a Community or Regional Parliament cannot be at the same time a member of the House of Representatives. Moreover, neither can he be a senator as referred to in Article 67 (1) 1), 2), 6) and 7).".
 
Article 120  [Immunities]
All Council members benefit from those immunities described in Articles 58 and 59.
 

Subsection II  Regional and Community Governments

 
Article 121  [Community Governments]
(1.1) There is a Flemish Community Government and a French Community Government, the composition and functioning of which are established by law, adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
(1.2) There is a German-speaking Community Government, the composition and functioning of which are established by law.
(2) Without prejudice to Article 137, the Regional bodies described in Article 39 include a Government for each Region.
 
Article 122  [Incompatibility]
Members of each Community or Regional Government are elected by their Councils.
 
Article 123  [Remuneration, Limited Immunity]
(1) The law establishes the composition and functioning of the Commu- nity and Regional Governments. Except with regard to the Government of the German-speaking Community, this law is adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph. (2.1) A law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph designates those matters relating to the composition and functioning of the Brussels-Capital Region Government, the Flemish Community Government, the French Community Government and the Walloon Region Government which their Parliaments regulate, each one in so far as it is concerned, either by federate law or by rule as referred to in Article 134, according to the case. This federate law and this rule referred to in Article 134 are adopted by a two- thirds majority of the votes cast, provided that a majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present.
(2.2) The law as described in the first sub-paragraph determines additional majority requirements with respect to the Parliament of the Brussels Capital Region.
(2.3) A law designates those matters relating to the composition and functioning of the government of the German-speaking Community which the Parliament of this Community regulates by federate law. This federate law is adopted by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, provided that a majority of the members of the Parliament is present.
 
Article 124  [Indemnity]
No member of a Community or of a Regional Government may be prosecuted or pursued on the basis of opinions or votes expressed by him in the line of his duties.
 
Article 125  [Accusation]
(1) Members of a Community or Regional Government are tried exclusively by the appeal court for offences they have allegedly committed in the exercise of their duties. The same rule applies in the case of offences allegedly committed by members of a Community or Regional Government outside the exercise of their duties and for which they are tried during the exercise of their duties. As the case may be, Articles 120 and 59 are not applicable.
(2) The law determines the manner of proceeding against them, both when they are prosecuted and when they are tried.
(3) The law designates the appeal court that has jurisdiction, which sits in banc, and specifies its composition. The judgments of the appeal court can be appealed to the united chambers of the Supreme Court, which does not pronounce on the merits of the case.
(4) Only the public prosecutor to the appeal court having jurisdiction may institute and lead criminal proceedings against a member of a Community or of a Regional Government.
(5) Authorisation by the Parliament of the Community or Region, each one for matters of its concern, is required for any public prosecutor's request to refer the member concerned to a particular court or to discharge him, for his direct summons before the appeal court and, except in a case of a flagrant offence, for his arrest.
(6) The law determines the procedure to be followed when Articles 103 and 125 are both applicable and when there is a double application of Article 125.
(7) A pardon may be granted to a member of a Community or Regional Government convicted in accordance with the first paragraph only upon request by the Community or Regional Parliament concerned.
(8) The law determines in which cases and in accordance with which rules injured parties may bring a civil action.
(9) The laws referred to in the present article must be adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
Transitional provision
The present article is not applicable to acts which have been the subject of a preliminary judicial investigation or to proceedings instituted prior to the entry into force of the law implementing the article.
In such a case, the following rule applies: the Community or Regional Parliament concerned has the right to indict members of their Government and to bring them before the Supreme Court. Only the united chambers of this court have jurisdiction to try ministers in cases covered by the criminal laws and by application of the penalties prescribed by such laws. The special Law of 28 February 1997 concerning the temporary and partial implementation of Article 125 of the Constitution remains applicable in such cases.
 
Article 126  [Regional Secretaries of State]
Constitutional dispositions relative to Regional and Community Government members, in addition to those executory laws described in Article 125, last paragraph, apply to Regional Secretaries of State.
 

Section II  Responsibilities

 

Subsection I  Community Responsibilities

 
Article 127  [Decrees, Competencies]
(1.1) The French and Dutch Community Councils, respectively, establish by decree:
1) cultural issues;
2) education, with the exception of:
a) the determination of the beginning and of the end of mandatory schooling;
b) minimum standards for the granting of diplomas;
c) attribution of pensions;
3) inter-Community co-operation, in addition to international co-operation, including the drafting of treaties for those matters described in 1) and 2).
(1.2) A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, establishes those cultural matters described in 1), types of co-operation described in 3), in addition to terms governing the conclusion of treaties described in 3).
(2) These decrees have force of law in French-language and in Dutch-language regions respectively, as well as in those institutions established in the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital which, on account of their activities, must be considered as belonging exclusively to one Community or the other.
 
Article 128  [Decrees on Personal Issues]
(1.1) The French and Flemish Community Councils rule by decree, in as much as each is concerned, on personal issues, in addition to what is included in such issues, matters of inter-communal and international cooperation, including the ratification of treaties.
(1.2) A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, establishes such personal issues, in addition to the various forms of cooperation and the terms governing ratification of treaties.
(2) These decrees have force of law in French-language and in Dutch-language regions respectively, as well as in those institutions established in the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital which, on account of their activities, must be considered as belonging exclusively to one Community or the other, unless a law adopted by majority vote as provided for in Article 4, last paragraph, makes other provisions with regard to those institutions in the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital.
 
Article 129  [Decrees on Language]
(1) The French and Dutch Community Councils rule by decree, in as much as each is concerned, excluding the federal legislator, on the use of language for:
1) administrative matters;
2) education in those establishments created, subsidized, and recognized by public authorities;
3) social relations between employers and their personnel, in addition to corporate acts and documents required by law and by regulations.
(2) These decrees have force of law in French-language and in Dutch-language regions respectively except as concerns:
- those communes or groups of communes contiguous to another linguistic Region and in which the law prescribes or allows use of another language than that of the Region in which they are located.  For these communes, a modification of the rules governing the use of languages as described in (1) may take place only through a law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
- services the activities of which extend beyond the linguistic Region within which they are established;
- federal and international institutions designated by law, the activities of which are common to more than one Community.
 
Article 130  [German-speaking Community Council]
(1.1) The German-speaking Community Council rules by decree on:
1) cultural issues;
2) personal issues;
3) education, within the limits established by Article 127 (1)(1,2);
4) inter-Community co-operation, in addition to international co-operation, including the conclusion of treaties, for issues described in 1), 2), and 3).
5) the use of languages for education in establishment created, subsidized or recognized by the public authorities.
(1.2) The law establishes cultural and persona issues described in 1) and 2), in addition to the forms of cooperation described in 4) and the manner in which treaties are concluded.
(2) These decrees have force of law in the German language Region.
 
Article 131  [Non-Discrimination]
The law determines measures designed to prevent all forms of discrimination for ideological or philosophical reasons.
 
Article 132  [Right to Initiative]
The right of initiative belongs to the Community Government and to members of the Community Council.
 
Article 133  [Interpretation]
The interpretation of decrees by voice of authority belongs the Brussels-Capital Regional Council, on the other hand.
 

Subsection II  Regional Responsibility

 
Article 134  [Regional Council Decrees]
(1) Laws executed on the basis of Article 39 determine the judicial force of the rules which the organs that they create may take in matters which they determine.
(2) They may confer the power to decree with force of law to these organs, with the responsibilities and in the manner which they establish.
 

Subsection III  Special Dispositions

 
Article 135  [Region of Brussels-Capital]
A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, designates those authorities within the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital which exercise those responsibilities not attributed to Communities as described in Article 128 (1).
 
Article 135bis [Attribution to the Region of Brussels-Capital]
A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph can attribute to the Region of Brussels-Capital, for the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital, powers that have not been assigned to the Communities in the matters referred to in Article 127, (1), first sub-paragraph, 1) and in the same sub-paragraph, 3), insofar as this 3) concerns matters referred to in the aforesaid 1).
 
Article 136  [Linguistic Groups in Brussels-Capital]
(1) There are linguistic groups within the Brussels-Capital Regional Council, and among the governing bodies, qualified with respect to Community issues; their composition, functioning, and responsibilities and, without prejudice to Article 175, their financing, are regulated by a law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
(2) The governing bodies together form the United Governing Bodies, acting as an inter-Community consultation and coordination organ.
 
Article 137  [French and Flemish Community Council]
In view of the application of Article 39, the French and Flemish Community Councils, in addition to their respective Governments, may exercise the responsibilities, respectively, of the Walloon and of the Flemish Regional Governments, along the terms and according to those conditions established by law.  This law must be adopted by a majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 138  [French Community Responsibilities]
(1) The French Community Council, on one hand, and the Walloon Regional Council and the French linguistic group of the Brussels-Capital Regional Council, on the other hand, may decide of common accord and each by decree, that the Walloon Regional Council and Government in the French-language Region, and the Brussels-Capital Regional Council and its governing bodies in the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital may exercise, in full or in part, the responsibilities of the French Community.
(2) These decrees are adopted by a two-thirds majority vote within the French Community Council, and by absolute majority within the Walloon Regional Council and by the French linguistic group within the Brussels-Capital Regional Council, provided that a majority of the Council members or of the members of the linguistic group concerned are present.  They may settle the financing of the responsibilities which they designate, in addition to transfers of personnel, of assets, of rights and of obligations which may concern them.
(3) These responsibilities are exercised, according to the case, either by decree, by order, or by ruling.
 
Article 139  [German- and Walloon Council]
(1) Upon request by their respective Governments, the German-speaking Community Council and the Walloon Regional Council may, by decree, decide of common accord that Walloon Regional responsibilities may be exercised in whole or in part by the German-speaking Community Council and Government in the German-language Region.
(2) These responsibilities may be exercised, according to the case, either by decree, by order, or by ruling.
 
Article 140  [Decrees of German-speaking Institutions]
(1) The German-speaking Community Council and Government exercise by means of decrees and rulings all other responsibilities attributed by law.
(2) Article 159 is applicable to these decrees and rulings.
 

Chapter V  Conflict Prevention, Court of Arbitration

 

Section I The Prevention of Conflicts of Competence

 
Article 141  [Prevention of Responsibility Conflicts]
The law organizes procedures tending to foresee conflicts between laws, decrees, and rulings described in Article 134, in addition to between decrees among themselves and the rulings described in Article 134 among themselves.
 

Section II The Constitutional Court

 
Article 142  [Court of Arbitration, i.e. Constitutional Court]
(1) There is for all Belgium a Constitutional Court, the composition, competences and functioning of which are established by the law.
(2) This Court rules by means of judgments on:
1) those conflicts referred to in Article 141;
2) the violation of Articles 10, 11 and 24 by al aw, a federate law or a rule  as referred to in Article 134;
3) the violation of constitutional articles that the law determines by a law, a federate law or by a rule as referred to in Article 134.
(3) A matter may be referred to the Court by any authority designated by the law, by any person that can prove an interest or, pre-judicially, by any court. The Court pronounces by a ruling, under the conditions and according to the terms specified by the law, on every referendum described in Article 39bis before it is organised.
(4) In the cases, under the conditions and according to the terms that it specifies, the law can give the Court competence to pronounce by a judgment on appeals lodged against decisions made by legislative assemblies or bodies thereof regarding the control of electoral expenditure incurred in the elections for the House of Representatives.
(5) The laws referred to in the first paragraph, in the second paragraph, 3 and in the third to fifth paragraphs are adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 

Section III The Prevention and the Settlement of Conflicts of Interest

 
Article 143  [Prevention and Settling of Conflicts of Interest]
(1) In the exercise of their respective responsibilities, the federal State, the Communities, the Regions and the Joint Community Commission act with respect for federal loyalty, in order to prevent conflicts of interest.
(2) The Senate makes decisions, by means of reasoned opinions, on conflicts of interest which may arise between the assemblies which legislate through laws, federate laws or rules as referred to in Article 134, under the conditions and in the manner determined by a law adopted by a majority as referred to in Article 4, last paragraph.
(3) A law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph organises a procedure designed to prevent and to settle conflicts of interest between the Federal Government, the Community and Regional Governments and the United College of the Joint Community Commission.
(4) The procedures described in  (2) and (3) do not apply to laws, decrees, regulations, acts and decisions of the Federal State relating to the basis of taxation, tax rates and exemptions, and any other element playing a role in the computation of the personal income tax.
Transitional provision
Concerning the prevention and the settlement of conflicts of interest, the ordinary law of 9 August 1980 on institutional reforms remains valid; how- ever, it can only be repealed, completed, corrected or replaced by those laws mentioned in (2) and (3).
 

Chapter VI  Judiciary Power

 
Article 144  [Civil Rights Conflicts]
(1) Disputes about civil rights belong exclusively to the competence of the courts.
(2) However, the law can empower the Council of State or federal administrative courts, in accordance with the terms it specifies, to rule on the effects that their decisions have with respect to civil law.
 
Article 145  [Political Rights Conflicts]
Disputes about political rights belong to the competence of the courts, except for the exceptions established by the law.
 
Article 146  [No Extraordinary Courts or Tribunals]
A court and a body capable of rendering judgment can only be established by virtue of a law. No extraordinary courts or commissions may be created, no matter under which designation.
 
Article 147  [Supreme Court]
(1) There is a Supreme Court for all Belgium.
(2) This court has no competence over the substance of the case.
 
Article 148  [Publicity]
(1) Court hearings are open, unless public access should endangers morals or the peace, if such is this case, the Court so declares in a judgment.
(2) In cases of political or press offences, proceedings can only be conducted in camera on the basis of a unanimous vote.
 
Article 149  [Reasoned Judgments]
Each judgment is supported by reasons. It is made public according to the terms specified by the law. In criminal matters, the operative part is pronounced publicly.
 
Article 150  [Juries]
A jury is sworn in for all criminal matters, as well as for political and press offences, with the exception of press offences motivated by racism or xenophobia.
 
Article 151  [Nomination of Judges]
(1.1) Judges are independent in the exercise of their jurisdictional competences. The public prosecutor is independent in conducting individual investigations and prosecutions, without prejudice to the right of the competent minister to order prosecutions and to prescribe binding directives on criminal policy, including policy on investigations and prosecutions.
(1.2) Moreover, Community and Regional Governments have the right, each one insofar as it is concerned, to order prosecutions regarding matters falling under their responsibility through the Minister referred to in the first para- graph. A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph determines the manner in which they exercise this right. (1.3) A law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph pro- vides for the participation by the Communities and the Regions, in matters falling under their responsibility, in the elaboration of the directives de- scribed in the first sub-paragraph and in planning security policy, and also for the participation of their representatives in the meetings of the College of Public Prosecutors General, insofar as these meetings have reference to these same matters.
(2.1) There is one High Council of Justice for all Belgium. In the exercise of its competences, the High Council of Justice respects the independence referred to in (1).
(2.2) The High Council of Justice is composed of a Dutch-speaking college and of a French-speaking college. Each college comprises an equal number of members and is constituted with equal representation, on the one hand, of judges and officers of the public prosecutor's office elected directly by their peers under the conditions and in the manner determined by the law and, on the other hand, of other members appointed by the Senate by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, under conditions established by the law.
(2.3) Within each college, there is a nomination and appointment committee, as well as an advisory and investigatory committee, which are constituted with equal representation in accordance with the provision laid down in the preceding paragraph.
(2.4) The law specifies the composition of the High Council of Justice, of its colleges and of their committees, as well as the conditions under which and the manner in which they exercise their competences.
(3.1) The High Council of Justice exercises its competences in the following areas:
1) the nomination of candidates for appointment as judge, as referred to in (4), first sub-paragraph or for appointment as officer of the public prosecutor's office;
2) the nomination of candidates for an appointment to the positions referred to in (5), first sub-paragraph and to the position of head of the public prosecutor's office;
3) access to the position of judge or of officer of the public prosecutor's office;
4) training of judges and of officers of the public prosecutor's office;
5) drafting of general profiles for the positions referred to in 2;
6) voicing of advice and of proposals concerning the general operation and organisation of the judiciary;
7) general surveillance on and the promoting of the use of means of internal control;
8) to the exclusion of all disciplinary and criminal competences:
-- the receiving and the following-up of complaints relating to the operation of the judiciary;
--  the conducting of an enquiry on the operation of the judiciary.
(3.2) Under the conditions and in the manner determined by the law, the competences referred to in 1) to 4) are assigned to the relevant nomination and appointment committee, and the competences referred to in 5) to 8) are assigned to the relevant advisory and investigatory committee. The law determines the cases in which and the manner in which the nomination and appointment committees and the advisory and investigatory committees exer- cise their competences jointly.
(3.3) A law to be adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph determines the other competences of this Council.
(4.1) The justices of the peace and the judges of the courts and of the Supreme Court are appointed by the King under the conditions and in the manner specified by the law.
(4.2) Such appointment is made on reasoned nomination by the relevant nomination and appointment committee, by a majority of two thirds in accordance with the terms specified by the law and after evaluation of qualifications and aptitude. The nomination can be rejected only in the manner specified by the law and with justification.
(4.3) In the case of appointment of an appeal judge or of a judge of the Supreme Court, the general assembly of the court concerned issues a reasoned opinion in the manner specified by the law, prior to the nomination referred to in the preceding paragraph.
(5.1) The first president of the Supreme Court, the first presidents of the appeal courts and the presidents of the lower courts are appointed to those positions by the King under the conditions and in the manner specified by the law.
(5.2) Such appointment is made on reasoned nomination by the relevant nomination and appointment committee, by a majority of two thirds in accordance with the terms specified by the law and after evaluation of qualifications and aptitude. The nomination may be rejected only in the manner specified by the law and with justification.
(5.3) In the case of appointment to the position of first president of the Supreme Court or of first president of an appeal court, the general assembly of the court concerned issues a reasoned opinion in the manner specified by the law, prior to the nomination referred to in the preceding paragraph.
(5.4) The president of the Supreme Court, the presidents of the sections of this court, the presidents of the divisions of the appeal courts and the vice-presidents of the lower courts are appointed to their positions by the courts from their midst under the conditions and in the manner specified by the law.
(5.5) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 152, the law specifies the duration of the appointment to these positions.
(6) In the manner specified by the law, the judges, the incumbents of the positions referred to in (5), fourth sub-paragraph and the officers of the public prosecutor's office are subject to an evaluation.
Transitional provision
The provisions of §§ 3 to 6 enter into force after the setting up of the High Council of Justice, referred to in (2).
On that date, it is assumed that the first president and the president of the Supreme Court, the presidents of the sections of this court, the first presidents of the appeal courts, the presidents of the divisions of these courts and the presidents and vice-presidents of the lower courts are appointed to these positions for the duration and under the conditions specified by the law and that they are appointed at the same time to the Supreme Court, to the appeal court or to the labour court and to the corresponding lower court, respectively.
In the meantime, the following provisions remain applicable:
The justices of the peace and the judges of the lower courts are appointed directly by the King.
The judges of the appeal courts and the presidents and vice-presidents of the courts of first instance under their jurisdiction are appointed by the King from two lists each with two candidates, one submitted by these courts, the other by the provincial councils and the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, depending upon the case.
The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the King from two lists each with two candidates, one submitted by the Supreme Court, the other alternately by the House of Representatives and by the Senate.
In these two cases, the candidates placed on one list may also appear on the other.
All the nominations are made public at least fifteen days before the appointment.
The courts choose from among themselves their presidents and vice-presidents.
 
Article 152  [Status of Judges]
(1) Judges are appointed for life. They retire at an age determined by law and benefit from the pension foreseen by law.
(2) No judge can be deprived of his post nor suspended except by court decision.
(3) The transfer of a judge can only take place with his consent and after a replacement has been appointed.
 
Article 153  [Judicial Administration]
The King appoints and dismisses officials of the public prosecutor's offices attached to the courts.
 
Article 154  [Remuneration]
Salaries of members of the judicature are determined by the law.
 
Article 155  [Incompatibility, Courts of Appeal]
A judge cannot accept a salaried position from a Government, unless this position is exercised free of charge, and even then, such a position must not entail an incompatibility as determined by the law.
 
Article 156  [Courts of Appeal]
There are five Courts of Appeal in Belgium:
1) that of Brussels, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Walloon Brabant, of Flemish Brabant, and of the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital;
2) that of Ghent, with jurisdiction over the provinces of West Flanders and of East Flanders;
3) that of Antwerp, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Antwerp and Limburg;
4) that of Liege, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Liege, of Namur, and of Luxemburg; and
5) that of Mons, with jurisdiction over the province of Hainaut.
 
Article 157  [Military, Commercial, and Vocational Courts]
(1) There are military courts when a state of war referred to in Article 167 (1), second sub-paragraph has been stated to exist. The organisation of the military courts, their powers, their members' rights and obligations as well as their members' terms of office are determined by the law.
(2) There are commercial courts in the places determined by the law. The law lays down rules for their organisation, their powers, the way their members are appointed as well as their members' terms of office.
(3) The law also lays down rules for the organisation of the labour courts, their powers, the way their members are appointed as well as their members' terms of office.
(4) There are courts for the enforcement of penalties in the places deter- mined by the law. The law lays down rules for their organisation, their powers, the way their members are appointed as well as their members' terms of office.
Transitional provision
The first paragraph becomes effective on the date of repeal of the Law of 15 June 1899 containing Titles I and II of the Military Penal Procedure Code.
Until then, the following provision remains effective:
Specific laws regulate the organisation of the military courts, their pow- ers, their members' rights and obligations as well as their members' terms of office.
 
Article 157bis [Use of languages]
Any modification to essential features of the reform regarding the use of languages in judicial matters in the judicial district of Brussels, as well as any modification to features relating to this issue and concerning the public prosecutor's office, the Bench and the extent of jurisdiction, may only be made by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
Transitional provision
The law determines the date on which this article comes into force. This date is that on which the law of 19 July 2012 reforming the judicial district of Brussels comes into force.
 
Article 158  [Attribution Conflicts]
The Supreme Court makes decisions in attribution conflicts in the manner provided for by law.
 
Article 159  [Rule of Law]
Courts only apply general, provincial or local decisions and regulations provided that they are in accordance with the law.
 

Chapter VII  Council of State, Administrative Jurisdiction

 
Article 160  [Council of State]
(1) There is a Council of State for all Belgium, the composition, competences and functioning of which are determined by the law. However, the law can give the King the power to establish the procedure in accordance with the principles that it determines.
(2) The Council of State makes decisions by means of judgments as an administrative court and provides an opinion in the cases determined by the law.
(3) Any modification to the rules relating to the general assembly of the Council of State's Administrative Litigation Section which come into force on the same day as this paragraph may only be made by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
Transitional provision
This article comes into force on 14 October 2012.
 
Article 161  [Administrative Jurisdiction]
An administrative court can only be established by virtue of a law.
 

Chapter VIII  Provincial and Communal Institutions

 
Article 162  [Principles]
(1) Provincial and municipal institutions are regulated by the law. The law guarantees the application of the following principles:
1) the direct election of the members of provincial and municipal councils;
2) the attribution to provincial and municipal councils of all that is of provincial and municipal interest, without prejudice to the approval of their acts in the cases and in the manner that the law determines;
3) the decentralization of competences to provincial and municipal institutions;
4) the public nature of provincial and municipal council meetings, within the limits established by the law;
5) the disclosure of accounts and budgets;
6) the intervention of the supervisory authority or of the federal legislative power to prevent the law from being violated or public interests from being harmed.
2) Supra-municipal collectivities are governed by the rule referred to in Article 134. This rule enshrines the application of the principles mentioned in the second paragraph. Other principles considered essential can be set by the rule referred to in Article 134, whether or not adopted by a majority of two thirds of the votes cast, under the condition that the majority of the members of the Parliament concerned is present. Articles 159 and 190 are applicable to decisions and regulations of supra-municipal collectivities."
3) In accordance with a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, the federate law or the rule referred to in Article 134 establishes the conditions and the manner in which several provinces, supra-municipal collectivities or municipalities can cooperate or form associations. However, provincial councils, councils of supra-municipal collectivities or municipal councils cannot be permitted to deliberate jointly.
 
Article 163  [Shared Responsibility]
(1) Those responsibilities exercised within the Walloon and Flemish Regions by elected provincial bodies are exercised, in the bilingual Region of Brussels-Capital, by the French and Flemish Communities, and by the common Community Commission, each with respect to matters within their jurisdictions and by virtue of Articles 127 and 128 and, with respect to other issues, by the Brussels-Capital Region.
(2) However, a law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, establishes the conditions bywhich the Brussels-Capital Region or all institutions the members of which are designated by the latter exercise the responsibilities described in Paragraph (1) which do not depend upon those matters described in Article 39.  A law adopted by the same majority establishes the attributions to those institutions described in Article 136 of all or part of the responsibilities described in Paragraph (1), subject to those matters described in Articles 127 and 128.
 
Article 164  [Registers]
The drafting of civil acts and maintenance of registers belong exclusively to the attributions of communal authorities.
 
Article 165  [Urban Entities, Federations of Communes]
(1.1) The law creates urban entities and federations of communes.  It determines their organization and their responsibilities through application of those principles described in Article 162.
(1.2) For each urban area and for each federation there exists a Council and an executive committee.
(1.3) The president of the executive committee is elected by and within the Council; his election is ratified by the King; the law establishes his statute.
(1.4) Articles 159 and 190 apply to the rulings and regulations of urban entities and federations of communes.
(1.5) The geographical limits of urban entities and of federations of communes may only be changed or rectified on the sole basis of a law.
(2) The law creates the body within which each urban entity and nearby federations of communes may meet, according to the conditions and manner which the law establishes, for the examination of common problems of a technical nature within their respective areas of competence.
(3) Several federations of communes may cooperate or associate themselves with one or more urban entities in accordance with the conditions and in the manner prescribed by law, to jointly manage and regulate those issues within their respective areas of competence.  Their Councils may not engage in joint deliberation.
 
Article 166  [Brussels-Capital]
(1) Article 165 applies to that urban entity to which the capital of the Kingdom belongs, with the exception of that which is established hereafter.
(2) The responsibilities of the urban entity to which the Kingdom's capital belongs are, in the manner determined by a law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, exercised by those bodies of the Brussels-Capital Region created by virtue of Article 39.
(3) The bodies described in Article 136:
1) possess, each for its Community, responsibilities identical to those of other organizing powers with respect to cultural, educational, and personal matters;
2) exercise, for their respective Communities, the responsibilities delegated to them by the French Community Council and by the Flemish Community Council;
3) jointly settle those matters described in 1) which are of  common interest.
 

Title IV  International Relations

 
Article 167  [Shared Responsibility]
(1.1) The King manages international relations, without prejudice to the ability of Communities and Regions to engage in international co-operation, including the signature of treaties, for those matters within their responsibilities as established bythe Constitution and in virtue thereof.
(1.2) The King commands the armed forces, and determines the state of war and the cessation of hostilities.  He notifies the Houses as soon as State interests and security permit and he adds those messages deemed appropriate.
(1.3) Territorial transfers, exchanges, and additions may take place only by virtue of a law.
(2) The King concludes treaties, with the exception of those described in Paragraph (3).  These treaties may take effect only following approval of the Houses.
(3) Those Community and Regional Governments described in Article 121 conclude, in matters that concern them, treaties regarding matters that are in the scope of the responsibilities of their Councils.  These treaties may take effect only following approval by the council.
(4) A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, specifies the terms for conclusion of treaties described in Paragraph (3), and for those treaties not exclusively concerned with issues within the competence of Regions or Communities or by virtue of the Constitution.
(5.1) The King may denounce treaties concluded before 18 May 1993 and covering matters described in Paragraph (3) of common accord with those Community or Regional Governments concerned.
(5.2) The King denounces these treaties if the Community or Regional Governments concerned invite him to do so.  A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, establishes the procedure in the event of disagreement between the Community or Regional Governments concerned.
Transitional provision
The second sentence of (2) comes into force on the day when elections take place with a view to the complete renewal of the Community and Regional Parliaments in 2014. Until this day, treaties referred to in (2) take effect only after they have received the approval of both Houses.
 
Article 168  [Parliament Information]
From the beginning, the Houses are informed of negotiations concerning any revision of the treaties establishing the European Community and the treaties and acts which have modified or complemented them. They receive the draft treaty before its signature.
 
Article 169  [Representation of Powers]
In order to ensure respect of international or supranational obligations, the authorities described in Articles 36 and 37 may, within the limits established by law, temporarily substitute themselves for those bodies described in Articles 115 and 121.  This law must be adopted by majority vote as established in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 168bis [Province of Brabant]
(1) With respect to the election of the European Parliament, the law determines special rules with a view to protecting the legitimate interests of French and Dutch-speaking people in the former province of Brabant.
(2) The provisions which establish these special rules may only be amended by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 
Article 169 [International or supranational Obligations]
In order to ensure the observance of international or supranational obligations, the authorities mentioned in Articles 36 and 37 can, provided that the conditions stipulated by the law are met, temporarily replace the bodies mentioned in Articles 115 and 121. This law must be adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
 

Title V  Finance

 
Article 170  [Taxes]
(1) Taxes to the benefit of the State may be imposed only by virtue of a law.
(2.1) Taxes to the benefit of Communities or Regions may be imposed only through a decree or ruling as described in Article 134.
(2.2) The law determines, with respect to those taxes described in Paragraph (1) those exceptions of proven necessity.
(3.1) A fee or tax may be established by a province only following the decision of its Council.
(3.2) A law determines, with respect to the taxes described in Paragraph (1), those exceptions of proven necessity.
(3.3) The law can suppress, either totally or partially, the taxes referred to in Paragraph (1).
(4.1) No charge or tax can be established by the urban districts, by the federation of communes, nor by the communes except by a decision made by their Councils.
(4.2) The law determines, with respect to the taxes described inParagraph (1), those exceptions of proven necessity.
 
Article 171  [Annual Vote on Taxes]
(1) Taxes to the benefit of the State, the Community, or the Region are voted on an annual basis.
(2) Rules which determine them remain valid for one year if they are not renewed.
 
Article 172  [No Privileges]
(1) No privileges with regard to taxes can be established.
(2) No exemption or reduction of taxes can be established except by a law.
 
Article 173  [Purpose of Taxation]
Except to the benefit of the provinces, the bodies responsible for polders and for draining and flood protection, and except for the cases formally excepted by the laws, the federate laws and rules referred to in Article 134, charges can only be claimed from citizens in the form of taxes to the benefit of the State, the Community, the Region, the metropolitan district, the federation of municipalities or the municipality.
 
Article 174  [Budget]
(1) Each year, the House of Representatives rules on the approval of State accounts and votes on the Budget5325.  However, the House of Representatives and the Senate establish their respective allocations on an annual basis.
(2) All State receipts and expenditure must be included in the budget and included in the accounts.
 
Article 175  [Community Budget]
(1) A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, establishes the method of financing for the French Community and for the Flemish Community.
(2) The French and Flemish Community Councils decide upon the spending of their respective attributions by decree.
 
Article 176  [German-speaking Community]
(1) The method of financing of the German-speaking Community is established by law.
(2) The German-speaking Community Council decides upon the spending of its financial attributions by decree.
 
Article 177  [Regional Budget]
(1) A law adopted by majority vote as described in Article 4, last paragraph, fixes the methods of financing for Regions.
(2) Regional Councils determine, respectively, the uses to which financial means are applied, in keeping with the terms described in Article 134.
 
Article 178  [Financial Transfer]
Under the conditions and in the manner stipulated by a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region transfers, by the rule referred to in Article 134, financial means to the Joint Community Commission and to the Flemish and French Community Commissions.
 
Article 179  [Pension Only by Law]
No pension or gratuity payable by the public treasury can be attributed other than by virtue of a law.
 
Article 180 [State Audit Office]
(1) Members of the State Audit Office are nominated by the House of Representatives for a duration established by law.
(2) This Office is responsible for the examination and for the liquidation of general administration accounts and for the accounts of accountants working for the public treasury.  It must see that no budgetary item is surpassed and that no transfers take place.  The Office also oversees operations relative to the establishment and to the perception of State income, including tax collection.  It establishes the accounts of the various State administrations, and is responsible, in this regard, for the collection of all required information and accounting items.
(3) General accounts of the State are submitted to the House of Representatives with State Audit Office observations.
(4) This Office is organized by law.
(5) The law can entrust the Court of Audit with the control of the budgets and accountancy of the Communities and Regions, as well as of the public interest bodies which depend on them. It can also permit their control to be regulated by the federate law or the rule referred to in Article 134. Except as far as the German-speaking Community is concerned, the said law is passed by the majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
(6) The law, the federate law or the rule referred to in Article 134 can entrust additional tasks to the Court of Audit. After the Court has agreed to it, the federate law or the rule referred to in Article 134 fixes the fee that is paid to the Court for carrying out these tasks. No fee is due for carrying out a task that the Court is already performing for a Community or Region before this paragraph comes into force.
 
Article 181  [Remuneration of Religious and Moral Leaders]
(1) The State awards remuneration and pensions to religious leaders; those amounts required are included in the budget on an annual basis.
(2) The State awards remuneration and pensions to representatives of organizations recognized by the law as providing moral assistance according to a non-religious philosophical concept; those amounts required are included in the budget on an annual basis.
 

Title VI  Army and Police

 
Article 182  [Army Recruitment]
Army5255 recruitment methods are determined by law. The law also establishes matters of promotion, and the rights and obligations of military personnel.
 
Article 183  [Military Quotas]
Military quotas are voted annually.  The law establishing them remains valid for one year if it is not renewed.
 
Article 184  [State Police]
The organisation and competence of the integrated police service, structured at two levels, are regulated by the law. The essential features of the status of the members of the personnel of the integrated police service, structured at two levels, are regulated by the law.
Transitional provision
However, the King can decide upon and implement the essential features of the status of the members of the personnel of the integrated police service, structured at two levels, provided that this decree, with regard to these features, is confirmed by the law before 30 April 2002.
 
Article 185  [No Foreign Troops]
Under no circumstance may foreign troops be admitted within the service of the State, or occupy or cross through the territory other than on the sole basis of a law.
 
Article 186  [Deprivation of Rank]
Military personnel may be deprived of rank, honors, and pensions only in the manner described by law.
 

Title VII  General Provisions

 
Article 187  [No Suspension of Constitution]
The Constitution may not be wholly or partially suspended.
 
Article 188  [Old Law]
From the day on which the Constitution becomes enforceable, all laws, decrees, rulings, rules, and other acts are annulled.
 
Article 189  [Binding Texts]
The text of the Constitution is drafted in Dutch, in French and in German.
 
Article 190  [Mandatory Publication of Laws]
No law or decision, or regulation of general, provincial or municipal administration is binding until it has been published in the manner described by the law.
 
Article 191  [Protection of Foreigners]
All foreigners on Belgian soil benefit from that protection provided to persons and property6229, save for those exceptions provided for by law.
 
Article 192  [Legal Oaths]
No oath may be imposed other than by sole virtue of a law.  The latter determines wording.
 
Article 193  [Colors, Coat of Arms]
The Belgian Nation adopts red, yellow, and black colors, while the Coat of Arms147 depicts the Lion of Belgium with the Motto144: Union is Strength.
 
Article 194  [Capital]
The city of Brussels is the capital of Belgium and the headquarters of the federal Government.
 

Title VIII  Revision of the Constitution

 
Article 195  [Declaration, Dissolution, New Houses Debate]
(1) The federal legislative power has the right to declare a warranted constitutional revision of those matters which it determines.
(2) Following such a declaration, the two Houses are dissolved by full right.
(3) Two new Houses are then convened, in keeping with the terms of Article 46.
(4) These Houses statute, of common accord with the King, on those points submitted for revision.
(5) In this case, the Houses may debate only provided that two-thirds of the members composing each House are present; and no change may be adopted unless voted upon by a two-thirds majority.
Transitional provision
The Houses, as they were constituted following their full renewal on 13 June 2010, may however, in common consent with the King, pronounce on the revision of the following provisions, articles and groups of articles, but only to the effect as indicated hereafter:
1) Articles 5,second paragraph, 11bis, 41, fifth paragraph, 159 and 190, in order to guarantee the full exercise of the Regions' autonomy to- wards the provinces without prejudice neither to the present specific provisions of the law of 9 August 1988 modifying the law on municipalities, the electoral law for municipalities, the law organising public centers for social welfare, the law on provinces, the electoral Code, the electoral law for provinces and the law organising simultaneous elections for the Legislative Houses and the provincial councils, nor to those relating to the office of governor, and in order to limit the meaning of the word "province" used in the Constitution to its sole territorial meaning, to the exclusion of any institutional meaning;
2) Article 23, in order to guarantee the right to child allowances;
3) Title III, in order to insert in it a provision aimed at prohibiting to modify election laws less than one year before the date when elections are to be held;
4) Articles 43, (1), 44, second paragraph, 46, fifth paragraph, 69, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83 and 168, in order to implement the reform of the bicameral system and entrust the residual legislative powers to the House of Representatives;
5) Articles 46 and 117, in order to provide that the parliamentary elections at federal level will take place the same day as the election of the European Parliament and that, in case of early dissolution, the new federal parliamentary term may not extend beyond the day when the election of the European Parliament following this dissolution is held, as well as in order to permit a law passed by a majority as de- scribed in Article 4, last paragraph to entitle the Regions and Communities to determine, by special decree or special ordinance, the duration of the term for which their Parliaments are elected and the date for the election of these Parliaments, and to provide that a law, passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph, fixes the date when the new rules laid down in this division with regard to elec- tions will enter into force;
6) Article 63 (4), in order to supplement it with a sub-paragraph providing that, for the election of the House of Representatives, the law establishes special rules with a view to protecting the legitimate interests of French and Dutch-speaking people in the former province of Brabant, and also providing that the provisions which establish these special rules can only be amended by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
7) Title III, Chapter IV, Section II, Sub-section III, in order to insert in it an article permitting a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph to attribute to the Region of Brussels-Capital, for the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital, powers that have not been as- signed to the Communities in the matters referred to in Article 127 (1), first sub-paragraph, 1) and in the same sub-paragraph, 3), insofar as this 3) concerns matters referred to in the aforesaid 1);
8) Title III, Chapter IV, Section II, Sub-section III, in order to permit a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph to simplify the procedures for cooperation between entities;
9) Article 143, in order to supplement it with a paragraph that precludes the procedure relating to conflicts of interest from being initiated with respect to a law or decision of the federal authority which modifies the basis of taxation, the tax rate, exemptions or any other element playing a role in the computation of the personal income tax;
10) Title III, Chapter VI, in order to insert in it a provision according to which any modification to essential features of the reform regarding the use of languages in judicial matters in the judicial district of Brussels, as well as any modification to features relating to this issue and concerning the public prosecutor's office, the Bench and the extent of jurisdiction, may only be made by a law passed by a majority as de- scribed in Article 4, last paragraph;
11) Article 144, in order to provide that the Council of State and, as the 80 case may be, federal administrative courts may rule on the effects that their decisions have with respect to private law;
12) Article 151 (1), in order to provide that the Communities and the Regions are entitled to order prosecutions regarding matters falling un- der their responsibility through the Minister of Justice, who immediately carries out the prosecutions, and in order to permit a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph to provide for the participation by the Communities and the Regions, in matters falling under their responsibility, in decisions concerning the investigation and prosecution policy of public prosecutors, the binding guide- lines with respect to criminal policy, the representation in the College of Public Prosecutors General, and in decisions concerning the Guide Note on Full Security and the National Security Scheme;
13) Article 160, in order to add a paragraph providing that any modification to the new powers granted to the general assembly of the Council of State's Administrative Litigation Section and any modification to the rules for deliberation in this assembly may only be made by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
14) Title IV, in order to insert in it an article providing that, with respect to the election of the European Parliament, the law determines special rules with a view to protecting the legitimate interests of French and Dutch-speaking people in the former province of Brabant, and that the provisions which establish these special rules can only be amended by a law passed by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph;
15) Article 180, in order to provide that assemblies which legislate through federate laws or rules referred to in Article 134 may entrust tasks to the Court of Audit, for which a fee may be charged.
The Houses can only debate on the items mentioned in the first para- graph provided that at least two thirds of the members who make up each House are present and no change is adopted unless it is supported by at least two thirds of the votes cast.
This transitional provision is not to be considered as a declaration in the sense of Article 195, second paragraph.
 
Article 196  [Restrictions]
No constitutional revision may be undertaken or pursued during times of war or when the Houses are prevented from meeting freely on federal territory.
 
Article 197  [Permanent Regency]
During a regency, no changes may be brought to the Constitution regarding the constitutional powers of the King and Articles 85 to 88, 91 to 95, 106, and 197.
 
Article 198  [Editorial Changes]
(1) In agreement with the King, the Constituting Chambers may adapt the numerical order of articles and of sub-articles of the Constitution, in addition to sub-divisions of the latter into titles, sections, and chapters, modify the terminology of dispositions not submitted for revision in order for them to be in keeping with the terminology of new dispositions, and ensure the concordance of French, Dutch, and German constitutional texts.
(2) In this case, the Houses may debate only provided that two-thirds of the members composing each House are present; and no change may be adopted unless voted upon by a two-thirds majority.
 

Title IX  Succession, Transition

 

[Part I  Rules of Succession]

(1) The dispositions of Article 85 shall for the first time be applicable to the descent from H.R.H. Prince Albert, Felix, Humbert, Theodore, Christian, Eugene, Marie, Prince of Liege, Prince of Belgium, it being understood that the marriage of H.R.H. Princess Astrid, Josephine, Charlotte, Fabrizia, Elisabeth, Paola, Marie, Princess of Belgium, with Lorenz, Archduke of East Austria, was meant to have obtained the consent13311 described in Article 85 (2).
(2) Until such time, the following dispositions remain in effect.
(3) The constitutional powers of the King are hereditary through the direct, natural, and legitimate descent from H.M. Leopold, George, Chretien, Frederic of Saxony-Coburg, from male to male, by order of primogeniture and with the permanent exclusion of women and of their descendants.
(4) It shall be deprived of his rights to the crown any prince who marries without the consent of the King, or, in his absence, of those who exercise his authority as provided for by the Constitution.
(5) He may, however, be relieved of this deprivation by the King, or, in his absence, by those who exercise his authority as provided for by the Constitution, provided the consent of the two Houses is obtained.
II. (Repealed)III. -- Article 125 is valid for events taking place after 8 May 1993. IV. [Repealed]
V. (Repealed)VI. -- § 1. (Repealed)(2) (Repealed)
(3) The personnel and the assets of the province of Brabant will be di- vided between the province of Flemish Brabant, the province of Walloon Bra- bant, the Brussels-Capital Region, the authorities and the institutions de- scribed in Articles 135 and 136, as well as the federal authority, in accordance with the terms determined by a law adopted by a majority as described in Article 4, last paragraph.
Following the next renewal of the provincial councils and until they are divided, personnel and assets remaining in common will be jointly managed by the province of Flemish Brabant, the province of Walloon Brabant and by the authorities which are competent in the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital.
(4) (Repealed)
(5) (Repealed)

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 7.4.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.