Constitutional Background

The ICL edition is not an authorized reprint of the Constitution in the sense of Article 155. For an official reprint, please refer to Singapore National Printers Ltd, 303 Upper Serangoon Road, Singapore 1334.

The last amendment added to the ICL edition, Amendment Act 1995 (24 March 1995), replaced Article 114 to include the newly (1995) established Pension Fund. The Amendment No. 2 Act 1994 (23 Sep 1994) added Articles 17 (3), 22b (9), 22d (8), 22l (1)(e), 22n (5), 37l, 37m, 39 (2)(e), 110d, 148 (2a), 148c (3) and (4), 148g, and 151a. It also includes a new Article 100 with judicial review in the special form of an advisory opinion. The Amendment No. 1 Act 1994 (31 March 1994) abolished the old Article 100 (Appeal to Her British Majesty's Privy Council) and added Article 111a. The Amendment Act 1993 changed Art. 94 (1). The consolidated ICL edition of the constitution is based on the 1992 Revised Edition.

A special feature of Singapore's legal system is the Central Provident Fund which gathers compulsory contributions from employees and employers of 20% of salary each. Three quarters are credited on an ordinary account and may be used for life insurance, education fees, and approved asset-enhancement schemes -- with the remainder to be withdrawn gradually from the age 60. The last quarter goes to Medisave (15%) and an old age and contingencies account (10%), with exact rates depending on the age of the account-holder.

History and News

  • 3 March 1997: Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew apologizes unreservedly to Malaysia for disparaging comments about Johor Bahru (Malaysia) which had resulted in cutting off some of Singapore's fresh-water supply and withdrawing large numbers of Malaysian workers from the country.
  • Jan 1997: After general elections, Tang Liang Hong who was the main opposition candidate, receives a series of defamation suits and flees to Johor Bahru (Malaysia). His "defamation" was labeling the accusations by Lee that Tang was a "Chinese chauvinist" as lies. The government made this an election issue of threats to ethnic harmony.
  • April 1996: It was revealed that senior minister Lee Kuan Yew and his son Lee Hsien Loong, the deputy prime minister, had benefited from discounts on luxury apartments. 
  • 1995: Singapore's founding father Lee Kuan Yew is nominated 'Man of 1995' by the regional news magazin 'Yazhou Zhoukan' for his hardline stance and criticism of western values.
  • 1963-1965: Singapore is part of the Federation in Malaysia. It is then ejected after ethnic discord between Chinese (77% of Singapore's population and 31% in Malaysia) and Malays (14% in Singapore and 58% in Malaysia).

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 11.2.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.