Czech Republic

Constitutional Background

The current constitution was adopted by the Czech National Council on 16 December 1992. It entered into force on 1 January 1993, replacing the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, when Czechoslovakia gave way to the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic in a peaceful dissolution.The 'Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms' is an integral part of the Constitutional Order, but not yet available on ICL. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review. Small minorities of Polish, German, Roma, Hungarian, and Slowakian people are protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms as well as by the 1990 School Law (not yet available on ICL) which provides for education in their mother tongue.

History and News

  • 2012: Constitutional Amendment (Art. 54 para 2, Art. 56, 58, 59, 62, 63, 65, 66, 87).
  • 2009: Constitutional Amendment regarding the Shortening of the Fifth Term of Office of the Chamber of Deputies.
  • 1 May 2004: Czech Republic becomes member of the European Union.
  • 2002: Constitutional Amendment.
  • 2001: Constitutional Amendment.
  • 2000: Constitutional Amendment.
  • 1997: Constitutional Amendment.
  • Mid-1993: The new Constitutional Court starts its adjudication; far-reaching decisions are the statement about the non-legitimacy of the former communist government on the basis of Radbruch's formula about the relevance of natural law within a legal system.
  • The current constitution was adopted by the Czech National Council on 16 December 1992
  • 25 Nov 1992: By law of the federal parliament, the state of Czechoslovakia dissolves into the Czech Republik and Slovakia.
  • 1989: "The velvet" revolution and the end of communism. 
  • 1968: An attempt to reform socialism followed by the Soviet invasion. 
  • Feb 1948: Communist Coup d'Etat.
  • 1945: Liberation of Czechoslovakia. 
  • 1939: Occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany. 
  • 1938: The Munich Pact. 
  • 1918: Foundation of Czechoslovakia. 
  • 1764-1790: Germanization at is peak, under the reign of Maria Theresa and Josef II.
  • 17-18th cent.: The creation of an original artistic style, the Czech Baroque, which left a unique mark on the look of the Czech Lands. 
  • 1620: Defeat of the Non-Catholic Estates in the Battle of the White Mountain and the beginning of Recatholicization. 
  • 1526: Advent of the Habsburgs to the Czech throne. 
  • 1419-1436: Hussite revolution.
  • 1415: The death of a Czech religious reformer John Hus (burnt at the stake). 
  • 1348: The foundation of the first University in the Central Europe. 
  • 1346-1378: Climax of the Czech medieval state under Charles IV. 
  • 1253-1278: The rule of Premysl Otakar II, King of Iron and Gold 
  • 1212: The Golden Bull of Sicily - a document which ratified the privileges of Czech Kings and emphasized that Bohemia was not subject to the Holy Roman Empire, but held a place of honour. 
  • 1085: Prince Vratislav II crowned Czech King. 
  • 870-894: Great Moravia began to flourish under Prince Svatopluk. 
  • 7th cent.A.D.: Prince Samo's Empire was the first Czech state formation.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 7.4.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.