Constitutional Background

Please note that Rwanda adopted new constitutions in 1995 and 2003 which are not yet available as an ICL edition.  Furthermore, the 1991 Constitution had been amended by the Arusha Peace Accord in 1993.

The 2003 Constitution is based on two years of deliberation, trying to achieve more democracy while avoiding the risks of yet another genocide.  It therefore does not allow any of the two main ethnic groups (a large majority of Hutus and a strong minority of Tutsis) to wholly dominate the other: no party may hold more than half of the government seats; president and prime minister must belong to different parties.

History and News

  • 26 May 2003: New Constitution adopted by referendum with 87% turnout and 93% Yes votes.
  • 27 June 1995, Den Haag: Formal installation of a six-judge UN-Tribunal about massacre of Tutsi minority by Hutu raiders under the guidance of Rwanda's Minister of Justice, Alphonse Nkubito.
  • 1960: Multi-pary elections; the last before the 2003 constitutional revision.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 11.2.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.