Constitutional Background

President Daniel arap Moi won a first-past-the-post, multi-party election in 1992, but ever since worked against freedom of speech and association. The National Convention Assembly, a coalition for constitutional reform, is seeking to scrap several archaic laws that give President Daniel arap Moi sweeping powers to crush political protests, jail dissidents, and ban political parties. The members want to change electoral rules that make it impossible for a challenger to unseat the incumbent.

History and News

  • 27 Aug 2010: Public promulgation of the Constitution, thereby set in force.
  • 4 Aug 2010: New Constitution adopted by 67% in referendum.
  • 2008: Constitutional Amendment establishes coalition government and the position of a prime minister.
  • 30 Dec 2002: Mwai Kibaki becomes president.
  • 9 Nov 1997: Parliament dissolved for elections after it adopted legislation to repeal laws restricting freedom of speech and assembly, give opposition parties greater representation on the electoral commission, and established a multiparty commission to review the constitution after the election.
  • 26 July 1997: Peaceful constitutional reform rally under opposition leader Raila Odinga.
  • 7 July 1997: Reformist rallies for constitutional change are violently suppressed by police; 22 foreign embassies protest and the IMF threatens to hold back a $36m loan.
  • 10 Aug 1995: Richard Leakey, Safina party lawyer Paul Muite, and several journalists are whipped and stoned by a mob of about 300 youths allegedly related to the ruling Kanu party and helped by local prison officers.
  • 20 June 1995: Richard Leakey founds the new party Safina (Noah's Ark).  Famous members are Muturi Kigano and Njeri Kabeberi.  Kenya's President Daniel arab Moi announces that Leakey is a  foreigner who wants to reinstall colonialism.
  • 1978: Daniel arab Moi starts ruling Kenya through his party, the Kenya African National Union.
  • 12 Dec 1963: Independence from the United Kingdom.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 11.2.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.