Constitutional Background

Croatia's 1990 Constitution, adopted after first democratic elections in 1990, reinforced the countries' will to oppose Serbian attempts of implementing Great Serbia (cf. Articles 135 (7), 140 of the Old Constitution). It marked the beginning of a horrifying war with ethnic cleansing on both sides. The current Constitution does no longer contain those provisions.

History and News

  • Jan 2014: Amendment of Art. 62 para 2: The definition of marriage as a life union between a woman and a man was incorporated by the Croatian Parliament pursuant to the referendum held on 1 December 2013 (Judgement of the Constitutional Court of 14 January 2015).
  • July 2013: Croatia becomes member of the European Union.
  • June 2010: Revision of the Constitution (Amendments required for adaptation of the legal system to membership of the EU).
  • March/April 2001: Parliament amends the constitution to abolish the Chamber of Counties, thereby switching from bicameral to unicameral parliamentarism.
  • Nov 2000: Parliament adopts amendment to implement a pure parliamentary system.
  • 4 Aug 1995: President Franjo Tudjman conducts three-day Blitzkrieg against Krajina Serbs and occupies Krajina region. 150,000 Serb refugees cross the border to Bosnia and Serbia.
  • 1 May 1995: Croatia starts re-occupation of Western Slavonia and establishes its sovereignty in the "Krajina" and the city of Knin.
  • 1991-1995: Serbia occupies one third of Croatia and formes the Republic of Srpska Krajina. They also conquer 70% of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • July 1991: Direct aggression on Croatia starts with emphasis on the town of Vukovar. Croats in Celije, Erdut, Dalj, Aljmas are killed. Vukovar is besieged and Osijek bombarded. The whole Eastern Slavonia is ethnically "cleansed" within three months.
  • 1991: The Serbs in Croatia initiate a rebellion in response to Croatian independence, which in summer 1991 turns into a real lead by the Serbified Yugoslav army.
  • Dec 1990: The first Croatian constitution is adopted.
  • 30 May 1990: The Republic of Croatia is proclaimed.
  • Spring 1990: Croatia holds its first democratic elections and ousts the Communist system; HDZ (Croatian Democratic Party) of Franjo Tudjman wins; Serbia threatens with war.
  • 1989: During the 600th anniversary of the battle of Kosovo celebration, Milosevic announces Serbia's policy of founding Great Serbia against the interest of other republics (Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina).
  • 1988: The Serbian communist party under the leadership of Slobodan Milosevic adopts the plan of creating Great Serbia, thereby promoting the break-up of Yugoslavia.
  • 1986: The Serbian Academy of Science creates a memorandum outlining the creation of a Great Serbia.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 7.4.2022 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.